- Volume 15 Issue 6
DOI QR Code
Effects of Dietary Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Protected Fat Supplement on the Production, Blood and Ruminal Characteristics of Holstein Cows
- Chen, Kuen-Jaw (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture) ;
- Jan, Der-Fang (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University) ;
- Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University) ;
- Yang, Der-Wei (Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture)
- Received : 2001.07.05
- Accepted : 2002.01.18
- Published : 2002.06.01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat and heat-extruded soybean meal on the lactation performance of Holstein cows. Twenty-four cows, consisting of 20 lactating cows and 4 rumen-fistulated dry cows, were randomly allocated into four groups with 5 lactating cows and 1 fistulated cow in each group. A replicated 4
Lactating Dairy Cows;Protected Fat;Undegradable Intake Protein
Supported by : Council of Agriculture
- Armentano, L. E., S. J. Bertics and J. Riesterer. 1993. Lack of response to addition of degradable protein to a low protein diet fed to midlactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3755-3762. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77718-8
- Broderick, G. A., J. H. Yang and R. G. Koegel. 1993. Effect of steam heating alfalfa hay on utilization by lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:165-174. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77335-X
- Chandler, P. T. 1989. Achievement of optimum amino acid balance possible. Feedstuffs 61(26):24.
- Coppock, C. E. and D. L. Wilks. 1991. Supplemental fat in highenergy rations for lactating cows: Effects on intake, digestion, milk yield, and composition. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3826-3837. https://doi.org/10.2527/1991.6993826x
- DePeters, E. J., S. J. Taylor and R. L. Baldwin. 1989. Effect of dietary fat in isocalorie rations on the nitrogen content of milk from Holstein cow. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2949-2957. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79447-9
- DiGiorgia, J. 1974. Non protein nitrogenous constituents. In: Clinical Chemistry. 2nd ed. by J. R. Henry, D. C. Canon and J. W. Winkdelman, Hagerstown, Harper and Row. pp. 511-514.
- Drackley, J. K. and J. P. Elliott. 1993. Milk composition, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed partially hydrogenated tallow. J. Dairy Sci. 76:183-196. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77337-3
- Gooding, L., E. and R. R. Grummer. 1998. Effects of postruminal protein on fatty acid digestibility in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1624-1629. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75729-7
- Hsu, J. T. and L. D. Satter. 1995. Procedures for measuring the quality of heat-treated soybeans. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1353-1361. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76757-1
- Jenkins, T. C. and B. F. Jenney. 1989. Effect of hydrogenated fat on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and lactation performance of dairy cow. 72:2316-2324. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(89)79363-2
- Johnson, T. R., M. J. Cecava, E. B. Sheiss and K. D. Cunningham. 1994. Addition of ruminally degradable crude protein and branched-chain volatile fatty acids to diets containing hydrolyzed feather meal and blood meal for lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:3676-3682. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77312-4
- Maiga, H. A., D. J. Schingoethe and F. C. Ludens. 1995. Evaluation of diets containing supplemental fat with different sources of carbohydrates for lactating dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1122-1130. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(95)76729-7
- Maiga, H. A. and D. J. Schingoethe. 1997. Optimizing the utilization of animal fat and ruminal bypass proteins in the diets of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:343-352. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75944-7
- Robinson, P. H. and J. J. Kennelly. 1988. Influence of intake of rumen undegradable protein on milk production of late lactation Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2135-2142. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79786-6
- Schingoethe, D. J. 1996. Dietary influence on protein level in milk and milk yield in dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:181-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(96)00975-3
- Erwin, E. S., G. J. Macro and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1771. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6
- Knapp, D. M. and R. R. Grummer. 1991. Response of lactating dairy cows to fat supplementation during heat stress. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2573-2579. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78435-X
- Schingoethe, D. J., D. P. Casper, C. Yang, D. J. Illg, J. L. Sommerfeldt and C. R. Mueller. 1988. Lactational response to soybean meal, heated soybean meal, and extruded soybeans with ruminally protected methionine. J. Dairy Sci. 71:173-180. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(88)79539-9
- Smith, N. E., W. L. Dunkley and A. A. Franke. 1978. Effects of feeding protected tallow to dairy cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 61:747-754. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(78)83643-1
- Klusmeyer, T. H., G. L. Lynch, J. H. Clark and D. R. Nelson. 1991. Effects of calcium salts of fatty acids and protein source on ruminal fermentation and nutrient flow to duodenum of cows. J. Dairy Sci. 74:2206-2219. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78394-X
- Palmquist, D. L. and W. P. Weiss. 1994. Blood and hydrolyzed feather meals as sources of undegradable protein in high fat diets for cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1630-1643. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77105-8
- Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
- DePeters, E. J. and J. P. Cant. 1992. Nutritional factors influencing the nitrogen composition of bovine milk: A review. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2043-2070. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)77964-8
- Chiou, Peter, W. S., K. J. Chen, K. S. Kuo, J. C. Hsu and B. Yu. 1995. Studies on the application of an undegradable protein system to high yielding dairy cattle in Taiwan. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 54:93-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00770-N
- Cant, J. P., E. J. DePeters and R. L. Baldwin. 1993. Mammary uptake of energy metabolites in dairy cows fed fat and its relationship to milk protein depression. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2254-2265. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77562-1
- Nakamura, T., T. J. Klopfenstein, F. G. Owen, R. A. Britton, R. J. Grant and T. S. Winowiski. 1992. Nonenzymatically browned soybean meal for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:3519-3523. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78127-2
- National Research Council. 1989. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle.6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC.
- SAS. 1996. SAS User Guide: Statistics. SAS Inst., Inc. Cary, NC.
- De Boer, G., J. J. Murthy and J. J. Kennelly. 1987. Modified method for determination of in situ rumen degradation of feedstuffs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:93-102. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas87-011
- Orskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighed according to rate passage. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 92: 499-508. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
- AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC.
- Rodriguez, L. A., C. C. Stallings, J. H. Herbein and M. L. McGilliard. 1997. Effect of degradability of dietary protein and fat on ruminal, blood, and milk components of Jersey and Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:353-363. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)75945-9
- Roseler, D. K., J. D. Ferguson, C. J. Sniffen and J. Herrema. 1993. Dietary protein degradability effects in plasma urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:525-534. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77372-5
- Grummer, R. R., M. L. Luck and J. A. Barmore. 1993. Rumen fermentation and lactation performance of cows fed roasted soybeans and tallow. J. Dairy Sci. 76:2674-2681. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77603-1
- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
- Kim, Y. K., D. J. Schingoethe, D. P. Casper and F. C. Ludens. 1993. Supplemental dietary fat from extruded soybeans and calcium soaps of fatty acids for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:197-204. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77338-5
- Refsdal, A.O., L. Baever and R. Bruflot. 1985. Urea concentration in bulk milk as indicator of the protein supply at the herd level. Acta. Vet. Scand. 26:153-162.
- Tomlinson, A. P., H. H. Van Horn, C. J. Wilcox and B. Harris, Jr. 1994. Effects of undergradable protein and supplemental fat on milk yield and composition and physiological responses of cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77:145-156. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)76937-X
- Palmquist, D. L. and H. R. Conrad. 1978. High fat rations for dairy cows. Effects of feed intake, milk and fat production, and plasma metabolites. J. Dairy Sci. 61:890-901. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(78)83667-4
- Van Soest, P. J. 1982. Lipids. In: Nutritional Ecology of The Ruminant. O & B Book, Corvallis, Oregon, USA. pp. 260-275.
- An energy-protein feed additive containing different sources of fat improves feed intake and milk performance of dairy cows in mid-lactation pp.1469-7629, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029919000062