DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Serum Mineral and Haematobiochemical Profile of Microfilariae Infected Cattle in India: Its Effects on Production and Therapy

  • Sharma, M.C. ;
  • Joshi, Chinmay
  • Received : 2001.06.01
  • Accepted : 2001.10.16
  • Published : 2002.03.01

Abstract

A survey was under taken of six district of Northern India viz. Bareilly, Pilibhit, Udham Singh Nagar, Nainital, Almora and Rampur. The age, breed, sex and physiological status recorded. A total number of 854 cattle examined out of which lactating (274 cases), non lactating (302 cases) heifers (128 cases), calves (82 cases) and adult male (68 cases) were examined. An incidence of 4.92 percent (42) of microfilarisis was recorded. The highest prevalence was observed in Rudrapur District of Udham Singh Nagar (33.33%, 4/12), followed by Lalkaun in Nanital District (21.74%, 10/46), Rampur (12.50%, 2/16), Bareilly (8.16%, 8/98) and Pilibhit (1.22%, 1/82). No infection was observed in Almora region. Amongst 854 cattle of different group incidence was highest in adult male (12.20%, 10/82), followed by non lactating (3.82%, 12/314) and lactating (2.70%, 2/74), (7.64%, 12/157) was found in Heifers. For haemeto-biochemical, serum minerals estimations and therapeutic study 32 animals suffering from filariasis and 18 healthy animals were taken. 16 animals were treated with ivermectin $@200{\mu}g/kg $ body weight. Effect of this disease on production has also been estimated for which body weight and milk production was observed. The main clinical manifestations observed were anaemia, loss of appetite, debility, oedematous swelling especially in the abdominal region, increased heart rate, and respiration rate. Haematological changes indicated decrease in hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, erthrocyte fragility and neutrophil, whereas there was significant increase in erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), total leukocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte and eosinophils. Biochemical changes showed significant reduction in the values of serum albumin, A : G ratio, where as there was significant increase in blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), globulin, total lipid, total cholesterol, phospholipids, serum bilirubin. Serum mineral profile also altered markedly, which indicate a significant decrease in Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn with increase value of Na and Cl. There was no significant change in P and K values. Enzyme pattern in micro filaria infected animal indicated increased level of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, ornithine carbamyl transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitric dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. In blood gas values and acid/base balance, there was an increase in $PVCo_2$ and $PVo_2$. It has been observed that microfilaria infected cattle showed decrease in body weight and milk production. Animal treated with ivermectin showed the return of these above values toward normalcy.

Keywords

Serum Mineral;Microfilariae;Cattle;Haematology;Biochemical;Production;Therapy;Milk Yield;Body Weight

References

  1. Barsanti, J. A., F. Kristensen and F. Drumphelles. 1977. Analysis of serum protein using agarose electrophoresis in normal dogs and in dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immities. Am. J. Vet. Res. 30:1055-1058.
  2. Bergmeyer, H. U. 1983. Methods of enzymatic Analysis 3rd Edn. NewYork, Verlogchemia. 3:133-138.
  3. Drill, V. A. and A. C. Ivy. 1944. Comparative value of Bromsulphalein, serum phosphatase, prothrombin time and intravenous galactose tolerance tests in detection hepatic damage by carbon tetra chloride. J. Clin. Invest. 23:209. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI101483
  4. Folin, O. and H. Wu. 1920. A system of blood analysis. Simplified and improved method for determinations of sugar. Journal of Biology and Chemistry 41:367.
  5. Jackson, R. F. 1968. Canine dirofilariasis. Curr. Vet. Therapy Small Anim. Pract., 3:216-220.
  6. Jain, N. C. 1986. Schalm's Veterinary haematology, 4rd edn. Lea and febiger, Philadelphia.
  7. Kaneko, J. J. 1980. Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals 3rd Edn. Academic Press, New York.
  8. Kumar, M. and S. P. Sharma. 1994. Haematological and biochemical studies in setariasis in buffaloes. J. Appl. Ani., M. Res. 5(1):41-46. https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.1994.9705996
  9. Kumar, V., H. C. Joshi and M. Kumar. 1989. Therapeutic trials in buffaloes naturally infected with microfilariae of setaria cervil J. Vet. Parasitol, 3:125-129.
  10. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th edn., Oxford and IBH, New Delhi.
  11. Venu, R., P. R. Murthy and C. Sreedevi. 2000. Prevalence of microfilariasis in graded murrah buffaloes in west Godavari district of Andhra-Pradesh, India Vet. J. 77:272-273.
  12. Kronfeld, D. S. 1965. In: Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals (Ed. J. J. Kaneko). 3rd ed. Academic press, New York, pp. 53-90.
  13. Sharma, M. C., S. P. Pachauri, U. Dimri and P. Dwivedi. 2000. Prevalence of filariasis in cattle in tarai region of Kumaon hills with particular reference to haemato-biochemical and pathological changes. Indian J. Vet. Path. 24:35-37.
  14. Dimopoullous, G. T. 1970. In: 'Clinical Biochemistry of Domistic Animals' (Ed. J. J. Kaneko and C. E. Cornelius). Vol. I, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, New York, 97.
  15. Sharma, M. C. and S. P. Pachauri. 1982. Blood cellular and biochemical studies in canine dirofilariasis Vet. Res. Comm. 5: 394:300.
  16. Sharma, M. C., N. N. Pathak, N. N. Hung, H. T. Than and N. V. Vun. 1985. Prevalence of various parasitic infections in murrah buffaloes in Vietnam. VI National Congress of Parasitology, held at G.B.Pant University, Pantnagar, March 19 to 21, 1985. (Abs. No. D9).
  17. Ringheim, H. P. 1974. Ascitis in the dog with two case reports of ascites in relationship to derofilariasis. Vety. Med. Small Animals Clin. 69:277-282.
  18. Synder, J. W., Si-Kwang Liv and R. J. Tashjian. 1967. Blood chemical and cellular changes in canine dirofilariasis. Am. J. Vet. Res. 28:1705-1710.
  19. Bloom, F. 1951. The diagnosis and treatment of liver disease of the dog. North. Am. Vet. 38:17.
  20. Ranjan, S. K. and N. N. Pathak. 1979. Management and feeding of buffaloes. Vikas Pub. House Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
  21. Sharma, M. C. and S. P. Pachauri. 1982. Blood cellular and biochemical studies in cannine dirofilariasis. Vety. Res. Comm. 5:295-300.
  22. Taussky, H. H. and E. Shorr. 1953. A microcolorimetric method for the determination of inorganic phosphorus. J. Biol. Chem. 202:675-685.
  23. Coles, E. H. 1967. Veterinary clinical Pathology. W. B. Saunders Co. Philadelphia.
  24. Duncan, R. J. and K. W. Prasse. 1977. Veterinary Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Pathology. The Iowa state university press, Ames. Iowa.
  25. Sharma, M. C., N. N. Pathak and N. N. Hung. 1984. Influence of parasitism on growth and milk production of Murrah buffaloes. Indian J. Vet. Med. 4:97-100.
  26. Goggin, J. M., D. S. Biller, C. M. Rost, B. M. De Bey and C. L. Ludlow. 1997. Ultra sonographic identification of Dirofilaria mimitis in the aorta and liver of a dog. Am. Vet. Med. Asso. 210(11):1635-1637.
  27. Senthilvel, K. and K. M. Pillai. 1999. A case of sub cutaneous dirofilariasis in a woman in kerala. Indian Vet. J. 76:263-364.
  28. Siddiqui, A. A. and S. P. Sharma. 1997. Experimental clinicobiochemical studies on induced setariosis in lambs. Inidian. J. Anim. Sci. 67:117-119.
  29. Wootton, I. D. P. 1964. Microanalysis in medical biochemistry, 4th Edn. J. and A. Churchill limited, London.
  30. Dalsanto, F. C. 1959. (Ed. J. J. Keneko and C. E. Cornelius). 1970. clinical biochemistry of domestic animals. Acta Med. Vet. 5:579.
  31. Sharma, M. C., S. K. Dwivedi, D. Swarup, S. K. Jindal and O. P. Gupta. 1980. Importance of live stock diseases in Indian economy. Live stock Advisor 5:15-19.
  32. Lec, Y. S. and J. D. Wang. 1991. Efficacy of levamisole against Adult form and microfilaria of Setaria digitata. Taiwan J. Vet. Med. Ani. Hus. 57:37-43.
  33. Wahl, G., Achu-Kwi-MD, Mbah-D, O. Dawa and A. Rinz. 1994. Bovine onchocercosis in North Cameroon. Vet. Parasitology, 52:3-4, 297-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4017(94)90121-X
  34. Rudolph, L. A., J. A. Schaefer, R. E. Jr. Dutton and R. N. Lyons. 1957. Serum glutamic oxalacetic transanimase in experimental tissue injury. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 49:31-40.
  35. Leat, W. M. F and J. G. Hale. 1968. In: 'Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals' (Ed. J. J. Kaneko and C. E. Cornelius). Vol. 2nd ed. Academic press, New York, 53.
  36. Malherbe, W. D. 1960. The value of the determination of transaminase activity in plasma as a screening test for liver disease in animals. (Ed. J. J. Kaneko and C. E. Cornelius). 1970. J. South Afr. Vet. Med. Ass. 31:159.
  37. Reitman, S. and S. Frankel. 1975. Determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and pyruvic transaminase by colorimatic method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28:56.

Cited by

  1. Prevalence of bovine microfilariasis in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh vol.41, pp.3, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-017-0909-3

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Director Indian Veterinary Research Institute