DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

In Situ Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorous Disappearance of Different Feeds for Ruminants

  • Islam, M.R. (Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute) ;
  • Ishida, M. (National Grassland Research Institute) ;
  • Ando, S. (National Grassland Research Institute) ;
  • Nishida, T. (National Grassland Research Institute)
  • Received : 2001.08.29
  • Accepted : 2001.12.27
  • Published : 2002.06.01

Abstract

Four feeds, three concentrates (rice bran, soybean meal and flaked corn) and one forage (corn silage) were incubated in four ruminally fistulated Holstein steers over three one week periods in a 3${\times}$4 incomplete latin square design where steers served as blocks and feeds as treatment. The objectives of the study were to investigate in situ DM, N and P degradability characteristics of feeds in order to assess availability of these nutrients by ruminants. In each period, all feeds were incubated in quadruplets (corn silage in triplicates) in the rumen of each steer in a reverse order for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h. The DM 'a' fraction was higher and lower (p<0.001) in corn silage and rice bran respectively. Although corn silage contained the lowest (p<0.01) DM 'b' fraction, flaked corn contained the highest. Rate of DM degradation of flaked corn and corn silage were half (p<0.05) of the rate of DM degradation of either rice bran or soybean meal. Potential or effective DM degradability (p<0.05 to 0.001) at various passage rates were the lowest for rice bran and the highest for soybean meal. Corn silage N 'a' and 'b' was the highest and lowest, respectively (p<0.01). N 'c' of corn silage and rice bran was higher (p<0.001) than other feeds. Potential N degradability was the lowest in flaked corn (p<0.05). P 'a' was high (p<0.01) for corn silage and rice bran. P 'b' fraction was very high (p<0.001) in soybean meal but was absent in corn silage. Availability of DM (p<0.01 or 0.001), N (p<0.001) and P (p<0.05) differed between feeds at various passage rates except P availability at k=0.02 per h (p>0.05). The results demonstrate that the availability of DM, N and P by ruminants depends on feed as well as categories of animal.

Keywords

Feeds;In Situ;Nitrogen;Phosphorous;Ruminants

Acknowledgement

Supported by : Ministry of Agriculture

References

  1. AFRC. 1993. Energy and Protein Requirements of Ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the AFRC Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. Compiled by G. Alderman, in collaboration with B.R. Cottrill. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
  2. AOAC. 1984. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  3. Mahanna, B. 1994. Proper management assures high quality silage, grains. Part I. Feedingstuffs. 10:12-23.
  4. Martz, F. A., A. T. Belo, M. F. Weiss and R. L. Belyea. 1999 . True absorption of calcium and phosphorus from corn silage fed to nonlactating, pregnant cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:618-622. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(99)75275-6
  5. Orskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
  6. Reddy, N. R., T. R. Sathe and D. K. Salunkhe. 1982. Phytases in legumes and cereals. In: Advances in Food Research (C. O. Chichester). Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-9.
  7. Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, NDF and non-starch poysaccharide in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
  8. Martz, F. A., A. T. Belo, M. F. Weiss and R. L. Belyea. 1990 . True absorption of calcium and phosphorus from alfalfa and corn silage when fed to lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1549-1561. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(75)84751-5
  9. AFRC. 1991. AFRC Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients, Report 6. A reappraisal of the calcium and phosphorous requirements of sheep and cattle. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. 9:574-612.
  10. Dayrell, M. S. and M. Ivan. 1989. True absorption of phosphorus in sheep fed corn silage and silage supplemented with dicalcium or rock phosphate. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 69:181-186. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjas89-021
  11. Saio, K., E. Koyama and T. Watanabe. 1967. Protein-calciumphytic acid relationships in soybean. I. Effect of calcium and phosphorous solubility characteristics of soybean meal protein. Agric. Biol. Chem. 31:1195-1200. https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.31.1195
  12. Leng, R. A. and T. R. Preston. 1985. Constraint to the efficient utilization of sugarcane and its byproducts as feed for production of large ruminants. In: Ruminant Feeding System Utilizing Fibrous Agricultural Residues (Ed. R. M. Dixon). Canberra, Australia, pp. 211-221.
  13. De Visser, H., H. Huisert, A. Klop and R. S. Ketelaar. 1993. Autumn-cut silage as roughage component in dairy cow rations. 2. Rumen degradation, fermentation and kinetics. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 41:221-234.
  14. Ishida, M., M. R. Islam, S. Ando, T. Nishida and N. Yoshida. 1999. Effect of stages of lactation and levels of concentrate in diet on voluntary intake of whole crop rice silage, chewing time and milk production by lactating Holstein dairy cows. Proc. Japanese Soc. Anim. Sci. (in Japanese), p. 29.
  15. Walhain, P., M. Foucart and A. Thewis. 1992. Influence of extrusion on ruminal and intestinal disappearance in sacco of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins and starch. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 38:43-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(92)90075-H
  16. Elliot, R., H. M. Ferreiro, A. Priego and T. R. Preston. 1978. Rice polishings as a supplement in sugarcane diets, the quantities of starch (glucose polymers) entering to proximal duodenum. Trop. Anim. Prod. 3:30-35.
  17. Fontaine, T. D., W. A. Pons Jr. and G. W. Irving. 1946. Protein phytic acid relationship in peanuts and cottonseed. J. Biol. Chem. 164:487-507.
  18. Malcom, K. J. and H. E. Kiesling. 1993. Dry matter disappearance and gelatinization of grains as influenced by processing and conditions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 40:321-330. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(93)90061-N
  19. Abidin, Z. and T. J. Kempton. 1981. Effects of treatment of barley straw with anhydrous ammonia and supplementation with heat-treated protein meals on feed intake and liveweight performance of growing lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 6:145-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(81)90045-6
  20. Statistical Analysis System Institute (SAS). 1987. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Carey, North Carolina, USA.
  21. Von Keyserlingk, M. A. G., M. L. Swift, R. Puchala and J. A. Shelford. 1996. Degradability characteristics of dry matter and crude protein of forages in ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:291-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00865-9
  22. Mizuno, N. and M. Minami. 1980. Rapid pretreatment method using sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide for determination of nitrogen, potasium, magnesium, calcium and manganese in crops. Jpn. J. Soil Plant Nutr. (in Japanese). 51:418-420.
  23. Arieli, A., I. Bruckental, O. Kedar and D. Sklan. 1995. In sacco disappearance of starch, nitrogen and fat in processed grain. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 62:29-36.
  24. Konishi, C., T. Matsui, W. Park, H. Yano and F. Yano. 1999. Heat treatment of soybean meal and rapeseed meal suppresses rumen degradation of phytate phosphorous in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 80:115-122. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00044-9
  25. Obitsu, T., T. Morooka, M. Okubo and Y. Asahida. 1995. Ruminal and post ruminal digestion and nitrogen balance in earlyweaned calves fed soybean meal and heated soybean meal. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 8:75-82. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1995.75
  26. Ilyas, A., M. Hirabyasi, H. Matsui, H. Yano, F. Yano, T. Kikushima, M. Takebe and K. Hayakawa. 1995. A note on the removal of phytate in soybean meal using Aspergillus usami. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 8:135-138. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1995.135
  27. McAllister, T. A. and K. J. Cheng. 1996. Microbial strategies in the ruminal digestion of cereal grains. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 62:29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(96)01003-6
  28. Zhao, Y., K. Taniguchi and T. Obitsu. 1996. Effects of different processing procedures of rice bran on dietary nutrient digestion in each segment of the digestive tract of steers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:265-277. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(95)00912-4