DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effects of Corn Processing on In Vitro and In Situ Digestion of Corn Grain in Holstein Steers

  • Lee, S.Y. ;
  • Kim, W.Y. ;
  • Ko, J.Y. ;
  • Ha, J.K.
  • Received : 2001.08.27
  • Accepted : 2002.01.24
  • Published : 2002.06.01

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine effects of whole (intact), coarsely-ground (4 mm), finely-ground (1 mm), steam-flaked and steam-flaked-ground (1 mm) corns on in vitro and in situ DM digestibilities and also in vitro fermentation characteristics. After 48 h incubation, in vitro dry matter digestibilities of whole, steam-flaked, coarsely-ground, steam-flaked-ground, and finely-ground corns were 6.79, 61.68, 76.48, 85.72 and 90.31%, respectively. Steam-flaked-ground corn showed the highest digestibility until 24 h incubation (p<0.01). After 48 h incubation, pH of whole corn decreased with a small range. However the values of pH of other media significantly decreased (p<0.01). The gas productions of finely-ground and steam-flaked-ground corns were higher than those of the other corns (p<0.01). After 24 h incubation, $NH_3$-N concentration of finely-ground and steam-flaked-ground corns increased rapidly. Total VFA was the highest in finely-ground corn, followed by steam-flaked-ground, steam-flaked, coarsely-ground and whole corns. Incorporating steam-flaked corn resulted in the highest propionate concentration (p<0.01) and the lowest acetate : propionate value (p<0.05). Finely-ground corn showed the highest in situ DM digestibility throughout the incubation period (p<0.01), followed by coarsely-ground, steam-flaked and whole corns, respectively. Overall, DM of whole corn was merely digested in vitro as well as in situ.

Keywords

In vitro;In situ;Processing Corn;DM Digestibility

References

  1. Aldrich, J. M., L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga and L. C. Griel, Jr. 1993. Nonstructural carbohydrate and protein effects on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow, and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1091-1105. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(93)77438-X
  2. Frederick, H. M., B. Theuer and W. H. Hale. 1973. Effect of moisture, pressure, and temperature on enzymatic starch degradation of barley and sorghum grain. J. Dairy Sci. 56:596-601.
  3. Fulton, W. R., T. J. Klopfenstein and R. A. Britton. 1979b. Adaptation to high concentrate diets by beef cattle. II. Effect of ruminal pH alteration on rumen fermentation and voluntary intake of wheat diets. J. Anim. Sci. 49:785-789. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.493785x
  4. Ha, J. K., S. S. Lee, B. O. Kwak, T. H. Moon and S. H. Kang. 1994. Effects of corn processing methods on the nutrients utilization I. Disappearances and degradabilities of dry matter and crude protein of feed stuffs in the rumen of Holstein cows. Korean J. Dairy Sci. 16(1):1-7.
  5. Huntington, G. B. 1997. Starch utilization by ruminants: From basics to the bunk. J. Anim. Sci. 75:852-867. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753852x
  6. Kim, N. S., J. K. Ha, Y. G. Ko, H. D. Kim, W. Y. Kim and B. O. Kwak. 1996. Effects of corn processing methods on the nutrient utilization II. Effects of processed corn on ruminal degradability of starch and lower gut disappearance rates of dry matter and crude protein in Holstein dairy cows. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 20(4):360-370.
  7. Loerch, S. C. 1992. Maximizing the use of corn grain in growing cattle diets. Ohio Beef Cattle Research and Industry Rep., Ainim. Sci. Dept. Ser. 92-1:45-52.
  8. Lykos, T. and G. A. Varga. 1995. Effects of processing method on degradation characteristics of protein and carbohydrate sources in situ. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1789-1801.
  9. McAllister, T. A. and K. J. Cheng. 1996. Microbial strategies in the ruminal digestion of cereal grains. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 62:29-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(96)01003-6
  10. Owens, F. N., D. S. Secrist, W. J. Hill and D. R. Gill. 1997. The effect of grain source and grain processing on performance of feedlot cattle: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 75:868-879. https://doi.org/10.2527/1997.753868x
  11. Statistical Analysis System Institute, Inc. 1985. SAS user's guide: Statistics. Version 5 Edition. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, N.C.
  12. Walker, R. D., G. T. Lane, J. K. Riggs, L. W. Roony and R. E. Lichtenwalner. 1973. Particle size and digestion of sorghum grain, J. Anim. Sci. 44:131.
  13. Wilson, G. F., N. N. Adeeb and R. C. Campling. 1973. The apparent digestibility of maize grain when given in various physical forms to adult sheep and cattle. J. Agri. Sci. 80:259-267. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600057737
  14. Murphy, T. A., F. L. Fluharty and S. C. Loerch. 1994. The influence of intake level and corn processing on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in steers fed all-concentrate diets. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1608-1615. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.7261608x
  15. Stock, R., T. Klopfenstein and Shain, D. 1995. Feed intake variation. Okla. Agric. Exp. Sta. Misc. Publ. 942:56-59.
  16. Beauchemin, K. A., T. A. McAllister, Y. Dong, B. I. Farr and K. J. Cheng. 1994. Effects of mastication on digestion of whole cereal grains by cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 72:236-246. https://doi.org/10.2527/1994.721236x
  17. Fulton, W. R., T. J. Klopfenstein and R. A. Britton. 1979a. Adaptation to high concentrate diets by beef cattle. I. Adaptation to corn and wheat diets. J. Anim. Sci. 49:775-784. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.493775x
  18. Erwin, E. S., G. J. Marco and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1770. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(61)89956-6
  19. Theurer, C. B. 1986. Grain processing effects on starch utilization by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1649-1662. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6351649x
  20. Moe, P. W., H. F. Tyrell and N. W. Hooven. 1973. Physical form and energy value of corn grain. J. Dairy Sci. 56:1298-1304. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(73)85350-0
  21. Stock, R. A., D. R. Brink, R. A. Britton, F. K. Goedeken, M. H. Sindt, K. K. Kreikemeier, M. L. Bauer and K. K. Smith. 1987. Feeding combinations of high moisture corn and dry-rolled sorghum to finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 65:290-302. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1987.651290x
  22. Vance, R. D., R. L. Preston, E. W. Klosterman and V. R. Cahil. 1972. Utilization of whole shelled and crimped corn grain with varing proportions of corn silage by growing-finishing steers. J. Anim. Sci. 35:598-605. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1972.353598x
  23. Reinhardt, C. D., R. T. Brandt Jr, T. P. Eck and E. C. Titgemeyer. 1998. Performance, digestion, and mastication efficiency of Hostein steers fed whole or processed corn in limit- or full-fed growing-finishing systems. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1778-1788. https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.7671778x
  24. Rust, S. R., F. N. Owens and D. R. Gill. 1980. Corn processing and alfalfa level effect on digestibility. Anim. Sci. Res. Rep. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. MP. 107:143.
  25. Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modification reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:130.
  26. Nordin, M. and R. C. Campling. 1976. Digestibility studies with cows given whole and rolled cereal grains. Anim. Prod. 23:305-313. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003356100031421
  27. Rooney, L. W. and R. L. Pflugfelder. 1986. Factors affecting starch digestibility with special emphasis on sorghum and corn. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1607-1623. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6351607x
  28. Galyean, M. L., D. G. Wagner and F. N. Owens. 1979. Corn particle size and extent of digestion by steers. J. Anim. Sci. 49:204-210. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1979.491204x
  29. Galyean, M. L., D. G. Wagner and F. N. Owens. 1981. Dry matter and starch disappearance of corn and sorghum as influenced by particle size and processing. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1804-1812. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(81)82769-5
  30. Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Develop. 28:7-55.
  31. Owens, F. N., R. A. Zinn and Y. K. Kim. 1986. Limits to starch digestion in the ruminant small intestine. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1634-1648. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6351634x
  32. Bowman, J. G. P. and J. L. Firkins. 1993. Effects of forage species and particle size on bacterial cellulolytic activity and colonization in situ. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1623-1633. https://doi.org/10.2527/1993.7161623x
  33. Herrera-Saldana, R., R. Gomez-Alarcon, M. Torabi and J. T. Huber. 1990. Influence of synchronizing protein and starch degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization and microbial protein synthesis. J. Dairy Sci. 73:142-148. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78657-2
  34. Waldhwa, M, P. Dharam, P. Kataria and M. P. S. Bakshi. 1998. Effect of particle size of con grains on the release of nutrient and in sacco degradability. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 72:11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00185-5
  35. McAllister, T. A., H. D. Bae, G. A. Jones and K. J. Cheng. 1994. Microbial attachment and feed digestion in the rumen. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3004-3018.
  36. Nocek, J. E. and S. Tamminga. 1991. Site and digestion of starch in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows and its effect on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3598-3629. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78552-4
  37. Ekinci, C. and G. A. Broderick. 1997. Effect of processing high moisture ear corn on ruminal fermentation and milk yield. J. Dairy Sci. 80:3298-3307. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76305-7

Cited by

  1. Degradabilidade no rúmen bovino de grãos de milho processados de diferentes formas vol.39, pp.3, 2004, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-204X2004000300010
  2. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca de grãos de milho e de sorgo com alto ou baixo conteúdo de tanino processados vol.13, pp.2, 2012, https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-99402012000200019
  3. Effect of corn grain particle size on ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of Holstein steers fed total mixed ration vol.31, pp.1, 2018, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0069
  4. Nutrient composition and in vitro fermentability of corn grain and stover harvested at different periods in Goesan, a mountainous area vol.61, pp.1, 2019, https://doi.org/10.5187/jast.2019.61.1.18