Growth Associated Hormones Response and Fat Metabolism Change in Finishing Pigs Fed with n-Methyl-d, L-Aspartate

  • Xi, Gang (Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota) ;
  • Xu, Zirong (College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University) ;
  • Xiao, Ping (College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University)
  • 투고 : 2001.07.30
  • 심사 : 2002.03.08
  • 발행 : 2002.07.01


A trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary NMA on several growth associated hormones and fat metabolism in finishing pigs. A total of 84 crossbred finishing pigs (average initial BW of $56{\pm}$0.37kg) were divided into 6 pens, 14 pigs per pen (7 gilts and 7 barrows per pen). 3 pens of pigs were fed with control diet (corn-soybean meal) and the others were fed control diet addition with 50 mg/kg NMA. During the trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. After 44 days trial, 8 pigs from each treatment (4 gilts and 4 barrows, weight similar to average group weight, $86.94{\pm}0.71kg$ for control group, and $90.55{\pm}1.51kg$ for NMA treated group) were sacrificed to collect the sample of the liver, longissimus muscle, subcutaneous fat (10th rib). The addition of NMA in diet increased the IGF-I, Insulin, T3, T4 levels in serum by 50.68% (p<0.05), 38.36% (p<0.05), 123.33% (p<0.01), 60.58% (p<0.03), respectively. Meanwhile, IGF-I level in the liver and the muscle were increased with 17.83% (p<0.03) and 26.00% (p<0.03) with addition of NMA. The data from subcutaneous fat (10th rib) analysis showed that supplement of 50 mg/kg NMA decreased the total activities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) by 20.54% (p<0.05), glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-DPH) by 16.97% (p<0.05), and decreased the specific activities of MDH and G-6-DPH by 37.46% (p<0.01) and 35.06% (p<0.01), respectively. The hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) total activity was increased by 25.00% (p<0.05) in NMA treated pigs. These results indicated that addition of 50 mg/kg NMA to diet can induce the endocrine great change in finishing pigs, furthermore, inhibit the fat synthesis through suppressing lipogenic enzymes and promote the fat degradation by elevating HSL activity in finishing pigs.


  1. Estienne, M. J., J. M. Harter-Dennis, C. R. Barb and T. G. Hartsock. 1995. Luteinizing hormone and growth hormone concentrations in serum of prepubertal gilts treated with Nmethyl-D,L-aspartate. Domes. Anim. Endocrinol. 12:207-213.
  2. Estienne, M. J., D. S. Broughton and C. R. Barb. 2000a. Serum concentration of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, testosterone, estradiol and leptin in boars treated with nmethyl-d,l-aspartate. J. Anim. Sci. 78:365-370.
  3. Barb, C. R., R. M. Campbell, J. D. Armstrong and N. M. Cox. 1996. Aspartate and glutamate modulation of growth hormone secretion in the pig: possible site of action. Domes. Anim. Endocrinol. 13(1):81-90.
  4. Dubreuil, P., D. Petitclerc, P. Gaudreau, P. Brazeau and G. Pelletier. 1991. Effect of growth hormone-releasing factor infusion on somatotropin, prolactin, thyroxine, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I and blood metabolites in control and somatostatinimmunized growth pigs. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 8(2):307-321.
  5. D'rcole, A. J. and L. E. Underwood. 1987. Estimation of tissue concentration of somatomedin C/insulin-like growth factor-I. In: Methods in Enzymology Vol. 146 (Ed. D. Barnes). Academic Press, Inc., New York. pp. 227-233.
  6. Estienne, M. J., C. R. Barb and R. R. Kraeline. 1999. Neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in male domestic animal species: role of excitatory amino acids. In: Proceeding of the American Society of Animal Science. E 17.
  7. Estienne, M. J., J. M. Harter-Dennis and C. R. Barb. 1997. Role of neuropeptides and amino acids in controlling secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland in pigs. J. Reprod. Fertil. 52(Suppl.):3-17.
  8. Brann, D. W. 1995. Glutamate: a major excitatory transmitter in neuroendocrine regulation. Neuroendocrinology 61:213-225.
  9. Estienne, M. J., J. M. Harter-Dennis, C. R. Barb, T. G. Hartsock, R. M. Compbell and J. D. Armstrong. 1996b. N-methyl-D,Laspartate induced growth hormone secretion in barrows:possible mechanism of action. J. Anim. Sci. 74:597-602.
  10. Estienne, M. J., W. F. Hurlock and C. R. Barb. 1998. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and cortisol in gilts treated with n-methyl-d,l-aspartate during estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2162-2168.
  11. Estienne, M. J., W. A. Donet, J. M. Harter-Dennis, T. G. Hartsock, M. B. Solomon and C. R. Barb. 2000b. Growth performance and adipose tissue deposition in barrows fed n-methyl-d,laspartate. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2504-2507.
  12. Barb, C. R., J. B. Barrett, G. B. Rampacek and R. R. Kraeling. 1993. N-methyl-D,L-aspartate modulation of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion from pig pituitary cells in culture. Life Science 53:1157-1164.
  13. Estienne, M. J., J. M. Harter-Dennis, M. Newcombe, C. R. Barb and J. P. McMurtry. 1994. Effect of n-methyl-d,l-aspartate (NMA) on circulating concentrations of hormone associated with growth in swine and broilers. In: Proc. Assoc. Res. Directors 10th Biennial Res. Symp. New Orleans, LA. p. 44.
  14. Estienne, M. J., J. M. Harter-Dennis and C. R. Barb. 1996a. Endocrine responses, growth performance, and carcass quality in domestic animals treated with excitatory amino acids. In:Pro. 43rd Maryland Nutr. Conf. for Feed Manufacturers, Baltimore, MD. pp. 122-131.