- Volume 15 Issue 2
DOI QR Code
The Effects of Different Moisture Content and Ensiling Time on Silo Degradation of Structural Carbohydrate of Orchardgrass
- Yahaya, M.S. (Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine) ;
- Kawai, M. (Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine) ;
- Takahashi, J. (Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine) ;
- Matsuoka, S. (Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)
- Received : 2001.06.29
- Accepted : 2001.10.08
- Published : 2002.02.01
This study determined the influence of moisture, ensiling time and their interactions on the losses of hemicellulose and cellulose during ensiling of orchardgrass. Orchardgrass containing 80 (HM), 70 (MM) and 55% (LM) moisture was ensiled in 3 laboratory silos of 500 ml capacity for 3, 7, 21 and 91 days. The dry matter (DM), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), hemicellulose and cellulose contents of the ensiled orchardgrass was lowered than that of the untreated grass regardless of moisture content. Ensiling orchardgrass for 91 days (d) decreased (p<0.01) hemicellulose contents from 19 to 15%, 20 to 15% and 18 to 12% and cellulose from 31 to 29%, 29 to 26% and 27 to 26% for LM, MM and HM silage, respectively. Results from fermentation of LM and MM silages were within acceptable guidelines except for butyric acid and ammonia after 3 weeks of ensiling of MM which appeared to be lower than ideal. The results of the fermentation of HM silages were poor showing higher concentration of acetic, propionic and butyric acids and traces of isovaleric, valeric and caproic acids with ammonia at all stage of time. While the DM losses from LM and MM silages over the ensiling period were acceptable, that for HM silage increased to 13% after 91 d ensiling, confirming a poor fermentation process occurred. The greatest WSC losses occurred within 7 d of ensiling and the lowest losses occurred after 3 weeks of ensiling. Except in HM silage, the hemicellulose and cellulose losses were highest (p<0.01) in the first 3 weeks of ensiling. Hemicellulose losses were between 19 and 22% and 4.2 and 5.9% up to 3 weeks and after 3 weeks of ensiling LM and MM silages, respectively. Cellulose losses were small. In contrast, hemicellulose losses after 3 weeks of ensiling of HM silage was about 50% higher than over the first 3 weeks possibly due to clostridial type fermentation. The results showed that increasing ensiling time of high moisture orchardgrass would result in the excessive losses of DM, WSC, hemicellulose and cellulose in the silage.
Ensiling;Moisture Content;Orchardgrass;Structural Carbohydrates;Losses
- Matsuoka S., L. N. Branda and H. Fujita. 1997. Breakdown of structural carbohydrates during the ensiling process of grasses treated with Lactobacillus inoculant and cellulose preparation and subequent effects on their in vitro digestibility Anim. Sci. Technol. (Jpn.) 68:661-667.
- Matsuoka, S., S. Yonezawa, H. Ishitabi, K. Osanai and H. Fujita. 1993. The effect of moisture content on aerobic deterioration of grass silage Proceeding of World Conf. Anim. Prod. Edmonton, Canada. pp. 100-101.
- McDonald, P. and R. Whittenbury. 1977. The ensilage process. In: Chemistry biochemistry of herbage (Ed. G. W. Butler and R. W. Bailey). Academic Press, N.Y. 3, 33-36.
- McDonald, P., A. C. Sterling, A. R. Henderson, W. A. Dewar, G. H. Stark, H. T. A. M. Macpherson, Reid and J. Slater. 1960. Studies on ensilage. Edin. Sch. Agric. Technol. Bull., 24, 1-83.
- Stephen, J. W. and J. N. Micheal. 1960. The ensilage process and action of microorganisms. In: The Conservation of Grass and Forage Crop (Ed. J. W. Stephen and J. N. Micheal). Oliver and Boyd Edinburgh London. pp. 215-225.
- Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods of dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non starch Polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597.
- Watson, S. J. and M. J. Nash. 1960 losses during ensiling In: The conservation of grassand forage crop (Ed. J. W. Stephen and J. N. Micheal). Oliver and Boyd Edinburgh London. pp. 215-225.
- Wayne K. C., O. F. John, K. B. Keith, W. K. Charles and C. C. Robert. 1998. The effect of moisture concentration and types on quality characteristics of alfalfa hay baled under two density regimes in a model system. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:53-69. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00179-X
- Xiccato, G., A. Trocino and A. Carazolo. 1998. Ensiling and nutritive value of kernaf (Habiscus cannabua). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 71:229-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)00158-2
- Yahaya, M. S., A. Kimura, M. Harai, M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2000. The breakdown of structural carbohydrates of lucerne and orchardgrass during different length of ensiling and its effects on the nutritive value of silage: Supplement Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13: p. 153.
- Conway, E. J. and O'Malley, E. 1942. Microdiffussion methods: ammonia and urea using buffer absorbents (revised methods or ranges greater than 10 g.N). Biochem. J. 36, 655-661. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0360655
- McDonald, P., Henderson, A. R., Heron and S. J. E. 1991. Principle of Ensilage. In: The Biochemistry of Silage (Ed. P. McDonald, A. R. Henderson and S. J. E. Heron). Chalcombe publications, 2nd Ed. pp. 9-40.
- Baker, S. B. and W. H. Summerson. 1961. The calorimetric determination of lactic acid in biological material. J. Biol. Chem. 138, 535-554.
- Morgan, C. A., R. A. Edwards and P. Mcdonald. 1980. Intake and metabolism studies with fresh and wilted silages. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 94:287-298. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600028872
- Butler, G. W. and R. W. Bailey. 1973. Criteria for assessing the efficiency of the fermentation process. In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage (Ed. G. W. Butler and R. W. Bailey). 3:33-80.
- Ayako, W., K. Masahito, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2000. Breakdowm of structural carbohydrates during the ensiling process of legumes Hokkaido Anim. Sci. Agric. Soc. 42:83-86.
- Michael, K. W. 1984. In: The Silage Fermentation Marcel Dekker. (Ed. I. L. Allen, I. M. Richard). Inc. New York. pp. 1-22.
- Flynn, A. V. 1981. Factors affecting the feeding value of silage In: Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. W. Heresigh). Butterworths, London. pp. 81-89.
- Perry, W. M., W. M. Beeson and M. T. Mohler. 1967. Two types of low-moisture silage fed with three levels of corn and three levels of protein supplement to beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 26:110-114. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1967.261110x
- Dewar W. A., P. McDonald and R. Whittenbury. 1963. The hydrolysis of grass hemicelluloses during ensilage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 14, 411-417. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740140610
- Gary, M. 1992 Ensiling process. In: Silage Manual (Ed. M. Bjorge and H. Bjorge). Edmonton, Alberta. pp. 14-17.
- George, F. C. and T. Y. Melvin. 1979. Analysis of fiber components in feed and forages using gas liquid chromatography. J. Agric. Food Chem. 27, 373-377. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60222a040
- Chamberlain, A. T. and J. M. Wilkinson. 1996. The ideal silage. In: Feeding the Dairy Cow (Ed. A. T. Chamberlain and J. M. Wilkinson), Chalcombe Publications Lincol UK pp. 28-30.
- Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range test and multiple F. test Biometrics 11:1-42. https://doi.org/10.2307/3001478
- Weiringa, G. W. 1958. Changes in chemical composition during ensiling Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 6:204-214.
- R. J. Wilkins, K. J. Huthchinson, R. F. Wilson and C. E. Harris. 1971. The voluntary intake of silage by sheep 1. Interrelationships between silage composition and intake. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 77:531- 537. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600064613
- Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1980. Two-way classifications and analysis of variance. In: Statistical Methods (Ed. G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran) 7th edition Iowa state University press. pp. 255-269.
- Sullivan, J. T. 1973. Silage fermentation In: Chemestry and Biochemstry of Herbage (Ed. G. W. Butler and R. W. Bailey). academic press, New York. 3:1-31.
- Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage Fiber Analysis Apparatus, Reagents, Procedures and Some Applications. Agric. Handbook 379. ARS-USDA, Washington, DC.
- McDonald P., A. C. Stirling, A. R. Henderson and R. Whittenbury. 1962. Fermentation studies in wet herbage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 13, 581-590. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740131105
- Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. 15th ed. Assoc. of Official Anal. Chem. Washington, DC. pp. 1235-1241.
- Deriaz, R. E. 1961. Routine analysis of carbohydrate and lignin in herbage. J. Sci. Food Agric. 12, 152-160. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2740120210
- Yahaya, M. S., A. Kimura, J. Harai, H. V. Nguyen, M. Kawai, J. Takahashi and S. Matsuoka. 2001. Evaluation of structual carbohydrates losses and digestibility in Alfalfa and orchardgrass during ensiling 1. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14: 11, pp. 1-4.
- Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages vol.30, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0046
- Fermentation quality and nutritive value of fresh and fermented total mixed rations containing Chinese wildrye or corn stover vol.62, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/grs.12134
- Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage vol.88, pp.4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12682