DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Effect of Aflatoxin B1 on the Function of Peritoneal Macrophage from Mule Duck

  • Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang (Department of Animal Science, National I-Lan Institute of Technology) ;
  • Shen, Tian-Fuh (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Pang, Victor Fei (Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University) ;
  • Chen, Bao-Ji (Department of Animal Science, National Taiwan University)
  • Received : 2001.08.23
  • Accepted : 2001.10.24
  • Published : 2002.03.01

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aflatoxin $B_1$ ($AFB_1$) alone or mixed function oxidase (MFO)-activated $AFB_1$ on various functions of mule duck peritoneal macrophages. Duck peritoneal macrophages were incubated with $AFB_1$ 0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and $100 {\mu}g/ml$ for 12 h. The cell viability significantly declined as the concentration of $AFB_1$ increased and more obviously detrimental effects was noticed in MFO-metabolized $AFB_1$ treatments. Either in opsonized or unopsonized Candida albicans, phagocytotic ability of macrophages was decreased with the elevation of the concentration of $AFB_1$. Significantly higher levels of macrophages were damaged in MFO-metabolized $AFB_1$ than $AFB_1$ alone in concentrations above $20{\mu}g/ml$. The cytotoxicity activity was in the range of 41 to 33% after exposure to $AFB_1$ 5 to $100{\mu}g/ml$, and a significant higher TNF-like substance secretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was obtained. When LPS was present in the medium, the percentage of cytotoxicity was higher than all treatments of $AFB_1$ both with and without MFO-activation in the absence of LPS. The results suggest that MFO-metabolized $AFB_1$ can alter cell viability and morphology of duck macrophages more than $AFB_1$ administered alone. Both with and without MFOactivation, $AFB_1$ has detrimental effects on phagocytotic ability and TNF-like substance secretion, increasing with level of $AFB_1$.

Keywords

Aflatoxin $B_1$;Macrophage;Immune Function;Mule Duck

Acknowledgement

Supported by : National Science Council of Taiwan

References

  1. Aderem, A. and D. M. Underhill. 1999. Mechanism of phagocytosis in macrophages. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:593-623. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.immunol.17.1.593
  2. Chang, C. F. and P. B. Hamilton. 1979. Impaired phagocytosis by heterophils from chickens during aflatoxicosis. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 48:459-466. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(79)90429-0
  3. Cook, J. C. and E. Hodgson. 1983. Induction of cytochrome P450 by methylenedioxyphenyl compounds:Importance of the methylene carbon. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(83)90362-9
  4. Michael, G. Y., P. Thaxton and P. B. Hamilton. 1973. Impairment of reticuloendothelial system of chickens during aflatoxicosis. Poult. Sci. 52:1206-1207. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0521206
  5. Neldon-Ortiz, D. L. and M. A. Qureshi. 1991. Direct and microsomal activated aflatoxin $B_1$ exposure and its effects on turkey peritoneal macorphage functions in vitro. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 109:432-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(91)90006-Z
  6. Qureshi, M. A. and L. Miller. 1991. Signal requirements for the acquisition of tumoricidal competence by chicken peritoneal macrophages. Poult. Sci. 70:530-538. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0700530
  7. Skamene, E. and P. Gros. 1983. Role of macrophages in resistance against infectious diseases. Clinic. Immunol. Allergy 3:539-560.
  8. Takai, N., M. Kataoka, Y. Higochi, K. Matsuura and S. Yamamotok. 1997. Primary structure of rat CD14 and characteristics of rat CD14, cytokine and NO synthetase mRNA expression in mononuclear phagocyte system cells in response to LPS. J. Leukocyte Biol. 61:736-744.
  9. Wogan, G. N. and P. M. Newberne. 1966. Dose characteristics of aflatoxin $B_1$ carcinogenesis in the rat. Cancer Res. 57:403-407.
  10. Wright, S. D., R. A. Ramos, P. S. Tobias, R. J. Ulevitch and J. C. Mathison. 1990. CD14, a receptor for complexes of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS binding protein. Science 249:1431-1433. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1698311
  11. Karenlampi, S. O. 1987. Mechanism of cytotoxicity of aflatoxin $B_1$: Role of cytochrome P450. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 145:854-860. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(87)91043-6
  12. Kadian, S. K., D. P. Monga and M. C. Goel. 1988. Effect of aflatoxin $B_1$ on the delayed type hypersensitivity and phagocytic activity of reticuloendothelial system in chickens. Mycopathologia 104:33-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00437921
  13. Hamilton, T. A. and D. O. Adams. 1987. Molecular mechanisms of signal transduction in macrophages. Immunol. Today 8:151-158. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-5699(87)90145-9
  14. Neldon-Ortiz, D. L. and M. A. Qureshi. 1992. The effects of direct and microsomal activated aflatoxin $B_1$ on chicken peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 31:61-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2427(92)90087-7
  15. Qureshi, M. A. and W. M. Hagler Jr. 1992. Effect of fumonisin-$B_1$ exposure on chicken macrophage function in vitro. Poult. Sci. 71:104-112. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710104
  16. Qureshi, M. A., R. R. Dietert and L. D. Bacon. 1986. Genetic variation in the recruitment and activation of chicken peritoneal macrophage. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 181:560-566. https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-181-42293
  17. Kimball, J. W. 1990. Introduction to Immunology. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York; NY. USA. pp. 232-345.
  18. Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosenbrough, A. L. Farr and R. L. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193:265-275.
  19. Swenson, O. H. and E. C. Miller and J. A. Miller. 1974. Aflatoxin $B_1$-2,3-oxide: Evidence for its formation in rat liver in vivo and by human liver microsomes in vitro. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 60:1036-1043. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(74)90417-3
  20. Shen, T. F., C. C. Yen and C. C. Kuo. 1988. The effect of low levels of aflatoxin in the diet on the performance of mule ducks. J. Agric. Assoc. China 143:68-77.
  21. Cheng, Y. S. and V. F. Pang. 1995. Effect of aflatoxin on lymphocyte transformation in duck. J. Agric. Assoc. China 170:147-155.
  22. Blount, W. P. 1961. Turkey X disease. J. Br. Turkey Federation. 9:52.
  23. Pang, V. F. 1994. The immunity effect of aflatoxin in pigs. Life Sci. Newsletter. 8:1-9.
  24. Richard, J. L. and J. R. Thurston. 1975. Effect of aflatoxin on phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus spores by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Appl. Microbiol. 30:40-47.
  25. Lorr, N. A., K. A. Golemboski, R. R. Dietert and S. E. Bioom. 1990. Cytochrome P450 catalyzed activity in the bursa, thymus, peritoneal exudate cell (PECs), and liver of the 4 weeks old chicken after incubation with 3, 4, 3', 4' tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB). Poult. Sci. 69:85(Abstr.).
  26. Moon, E. Y., D. K. Rhee and S. Pyo. 1999. In vitro suppressive effect of aflatoxin $B_1$ on murine peritoneal macrophages functions. Toxicol. 171-179.
  27. SAS Institute Inc. 1989. SAS/STAT Guide for personal computers. Release 6.03th Edition. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA.
  28. Smith, J. E. and M. O. Moss. 1985. Mycotoxins: Formation, Analysis, and Significance. John Wiley and Sons Publishing. New York, USA. pp. 12-15.
  29. Pang, V. F., J. S. Chao, M. T. Chiou, S. S. Hsiao and C. R. Jeng. 1997. The development of a bioassay for tumor necrosis factor derived from porcine alveolar macrophages using MTT colorimetric measurement in a cell line, PK-15. J. Chin. Soc. Vet. Sci. 23:320-331.
  30. Trembicki, K. A., M. A. Qureshi and R. R. Dietert. 1984. Avian peritoneal exudate cells: a comparison of stimulation protocols. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 8:395-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-305X(84)90046-6

Cited by

  1. Effect of fumonisins on macrophage immune functions and gene expression of cytokines in broilers vol.60, pp.4, 2006, https://doi.org/10.1080/17450390600785079
  2. Effects of naturally mycotoxin-contaminated corn on nutrient and energy utilization of ducks fed diets with or without Calibrin-A vol.93, pp.9, 2014, https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.2013-03392
  3. Immunosuppression following dietary aflatoxin B1 exposure: a review of the existing evidence vol.35, pp.3-4, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1080/15569543.2016.1209523