Assessment of Effective Dose from Diagnostic X-ray Examinations of Adult

진단X선에 의한 성인의 진단행위별 유효선량평가

  • Kim, Woo-Ran (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Choon-Sik (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Jai-Ki (Department of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University)
  • 김우란 (한양대학교 원자력공학과) ;
  • 이춘식 (한양대학교 원자력공학과) ;
  • 이재기 (한양대학교 원자력공학과)
  • Published : 2002.09.30


Methodology to evaluate the effective doses to adults undergoing various diagnostic x-ray examinations were established by Monte Carlo simulation of the x-ray examinations. Anthropomorphic mathematical phantoms, the MIRD5 male phantom and the ORNL female phantom, were used as the target body and x-ray spectra were produced by the x-ray spectrum generation code SPEC78. The computational procedure was validated by comparing the resulting doses to the results of NRPB studies for the same diagnostic procedures. The effective doses as well as the organ doses due to chest, abdomen, head and spine examinations were calculated for x-rays incident from AP, PA, LLAT and RLAT directions. For instance, the effective doses from the most common procedures, chest PA and abdomen AP, were 0.029 mSv and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The fact that the effective dose from PA chest x-ray is far lower than the traditional value of 0.3 mSv(or 30 mrem), which results partly from the advances of technology in diagnostic radiology and partly from the differences in the dose concept employed, emphasizes necessities of intensive assessment of the patient doses in wide ranges of medical exposures. The methodology and tools established in this study can easily be applied to dose assessments for other radiology procedures; dose from CT examinations, dose to the fetus due to examinations of pregnant women, dose from pediatric radiology.


  1. International Commission on Radiological Protection, 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, lCEP Publication 60, Pergamon Press(1991)
  2. P. Gron, 'Methods used to Estimate the Collective Dose in Denmark from Diagnostic Radiology', Proc. Symp., IRPA, P-7-24 (2000)
  3. W.S. Snyder, M.R. Ford and G.G. Warner, Estimates of Specific Absorbed Fraction for Photon Sources Uniformly Distributed in Various Organs of a Heterogeneous Phantom, Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, MIRD Pamphlet No.5. Revised(1978)
  4. D. Hart, D.G. Jones and B.F. Wail, Estimation of Effective Dose in Diagnostic Radiology from Entrance Surface Dose and Dose-Area Product Measurements, Report NRPB-R262, National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, UK(1994)
  5. K. Cranley, B.J. Gilmore, G.W.A. Fogarty, and L. Desponds, Catalogue of Diagnostic, X-ray Spectra and Other Data, Report No. 78, The Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine(1997)
  6. M. Cristy, Mathematical Phantoms for Use in Reassessment of Radiation Dose to Japanese Atomic-Bomb Survivors, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/TM-9487(1985)
  7. M. Cristy and K.F. Eckerman, Specific Absorbed Fraction of Energy at Various Ages from Internal Photon Sources, Part V: Fifteen-Year-Old Male and Adult Female, Report ORNL/TM-8351/V5, Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, Tennessee (1987)
  8. K.A. Van Riper, SABRINA User's Guide, LA-UR-93-3696, LANL(1993)
  9. LANL Group X-6, MCNP-A General Monte Carlo Code N-Particle Transport Code Version 4B, LA-12625-M(1997)
  10. J.H. Hubbell, W.J. Veigele, E.A. Briggs, R.T.Brown, D.T. Cromer and R.J. Howerton, 'Atomic Form Factors, Incoherent Scattering Functions and Photon .Scattering Cross Sections', J. Phys. Chem., Ref. Data 4,471(1975)
  11. International Commission on Radiological Protection, Conversion Coefficients for Use in Radiological Protection against External Radiation, ICRP Publication 74, Pergamon Press(1996)
  12. G. Drexler, 'Verlauf der Ionendosis an Grenzschichten, In Microdosimetry', Proc. Symp. Microdosimetry, Ispra, 13-15. EUR 3747 d-f-e, European Communities, Brussels (1968)
  13. M. Cristy, 'Active bone marrow distribution as a function of age in humans', Phys. Med. Biol., Vol. 26, No.3 389-400 (1981)
  14. D. Hart, D.G. Jones and B.F. Wall, Normalised Organ Doses for Medical X-ray Examinations Calculated Using Monte Carlo Techniques, Report NRPB-SR262, National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, UK(1994)
  15. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes, Volume 1 .Sources, United Nations, New York(2000)