The Distribution of $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr$ and PU isotopes in the Coastal Sediment of Korea

한국 연안 퇴적물에서 $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr$ 및 PU 동위원소의 분포

  • Published : 2002.06.30

Abstract

The concentrations and activity ratios of $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr\;^{238}Pu$ and $^{239-240}Pu$ in sediment($0sim}20\;$cm) at 15 coastal stations of Korea were determined. The mean concentrations of $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr\;^{238}Pu$ and $^{239-240}Pu$ are $2.24{\pm0.79\;Bq{\cdot}kg^{-1}-dry,\;0.20{\pm}0.04 Bq{\cdot}kg^{-1}-dry,\;0.009{\pm}0.005\;Bq{\cdot}kg^{-1}-dry}$ and $0.27{\pm}0.17\;Bq{\cdot}kg^{-1}-dry$, respectively. The mean activity ratios of $^{137}Cs,\;^{90}Sr$, $^{239-240}Pu/^{137}Cs$ and $^{238}Pu/^{229-240}Pu$ and atomic ratio of $^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu$ are $11.2{\pm}2.9,\;0.123{\pm}0.053$ and $0.033{\pm}0.017$ and $0.218{\pm}0.036$, respectively. The concentrations and activity ratios in sediment samples are similar to those reported from neighbouring country in the northern hemisphere. The correlation coefficient of $^{137}Cs$ and $^{239-240}Pu$ is 0.80. The correlation coefficient of $^{137}Cs$ and soil organic matter(SOM), and $^{239-240}Pu$ and clay content are 0.69 and 0.67, respectively.

References

  1. 한국원자력안전기술원, 원자력시설주변 환경조사 및 평가보고서, KINS/AR-730(1998)
  2. 한국원자력안전기술원, 전국환경방사능조사(Vol. 31), KINS/AR-409(1999)
  3. 과학기술처, 동해 핵폐기물조사,KINS/GR-096 (1995)
  4. M. H. Lee, C. W. LEE, D. S. Moon, K. H. Kim and B. H. Boo, 'Distribution and inventory of fallout 229,240Pu and 137Cs in the sediment of the East Sea of Korea,' J. Environ. Radioactivity, 41, 99-110(1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0265-931X(98)00011-3
  5. M. Koide, J. J. Griffin and E. D. 'Goldberg, Records of plutonium in marine and terrestrial samples,' J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4153-4162(1975)
  6. M. Koide, K. K. Bertine, T. J. Chow and E. D. Goldberg, 'The 240Pu/239Pu ratio, a potential geochronometer,' Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 72, 1-8(1985) https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(85)90112-8
  7. T. M. Beasley, L. A. Ball, J. E. Andrews and J. E. Halverson, 'Hanford-derived plutonium in Colunbia River sediments,' Science, 214, 913-915(1981)
  8. V. T. Bowen and W. Roether, 'Vertical distributions of strontium-90, cesium-137 and tritium about 45 north latitude in the Atlantic,' J. Geophys. Res., 78, 6277-6285 (1973) https://doi.org/10.1029/JC078i027p06277
  9. 해양수산부, 해양환경공정시험방법, 해양수산부, 133-155(1997)
  10. R. L. Folk and W. C. Ward, 'Brazos River Bar: A study in the significance of grain-size parameters,' J. Sed. Pet., 27, 1-27(1957)
  11. M. Baskaran, S. Asbill, P. Santschi, J. Brooks, M. Champ, D. Adkinson, M. R. Colmer and V. Makeyev, 'Pu, 137Cs and excess 210Pb in Russian Artic sediments,' Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 140, 243-257(1996)
  12. NIRS, 'Radioactivity survey data in Japan, Part I. Environmental Materials,' National Institute of Radiological Sciences Report, NIRS-108(1999)
  13. G. Manjong, F. El-Daoushy and R. Garcia-Tenorio, ,,90Sr in lake sediments,' J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 219, 1, 95-98(1997)
  14. A. Noureddine and B. Baggoura, 'Plutonium isotopes, 137Cs, 90Sr and natural radioactivity in marine sediments from Ghazaouet (Algera),' J. Environ. Radioactivity, 34, 127-138(1997) https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(96)00030-6
  15. H. Zhu, S. Li, F. Wu, F. Sun, Q. Liu and W. Yang, 'Radioactivity in the coastal waters of the Bohai and Yellow Seas of China,' J. Environ. Radioactivity, 14, 193-209(1991)
  16. B. Salbu, H. E. Bjornstad and J. E. Brittain, 'Radionuclide mobility and bioavailability in Norweigian and Soviet Soil,' J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 156. 7-14(1992)
  17. P. E. Borretzen, H. Fjelldal, H. Lien, D. H. Oughton and B. Salbu. 'Mobility of radionuclides in sediments from Abrosimov and Stepovogo Fjord,' in: Environmental radioactivity in the Artie. P. Stand and A. Cooke, eds., 1st ed., pp. 168-172, Oesteraas Press, Norway(1995)
  18. K. Nakamura and Y. Nagaya, 'Distribution of 137CS and 239.240Pu in the sediment of the Seto inland sea,' J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 138, 153-164(1990)
  19. P. I. Mitchella, L. L. Vintroa, H. Dahlgaardb, C. Gascoc and J. A. Sanchez- Cabezad , 'Perturbation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio m local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain),' Sci. Total Environ., 202, 147-153(1997)
  20. E. P. Hardy, P. W. Krey and H. L. Volchok, 'Global inventory and distribution of fallout plutonium,' Nature, 241, 444-445 (1973)
  21. J. P. Beks, 'Storage and distribution of plutonium, 241Am, 137Cs, 210Pbxs in North Sea sediments,' Cont. Shelf Res.. 20, 1941-1964 (2000)
  22. C. S. Kim, MH. Lee, C. K. Kim and K. H. Kim, ,,90Sr, 137Cs, 239.240Pu and 238Pu concentraions in surface soils of Korea,' J. Environ. Radioactivity, 40, 75-88(1998)
  23. K. O. Buesseler and E. R. Sholkowitz, 'The geochemistry of fallout plutonium in the North Atlantic: II. Ratios and Their Significance,' Geochim Cosmochim. Acta, 51, 23-2637(1987)
  24. M. Yamamoto, 'Radiochemical studies on transuranium elements in the environment, Ph. D. diss. Tsukuba Univ.,(1992)
  25. P.W. Krey, E. P. Hardy, C. Pachucky, F. Rourke, J. Coluzza and W. K, Benson, 'Mass isotopic composition of global fall-out plutonium in soil,' in: Proc. Int. Symp. on Transuranium Nuclides in the Environment, SM-199/39. pp. 671-678, IAEA, Vienna(1976)
  26. J. N. Smith, K. M., Ellis, L. Polyak, G. Ivanov, S. L. Forman and S. B. Moran, ,,239.240Pu transport into Artic Ocean from underwater nuclear tests in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zembya,' Cont. Shelf Res.. 20, 255-279(2000)
  27. 한국전력공사, 방사성물질의 해양중 거동특성 기초조사 및 평가(최종보고서), TR. 98NJ18. Jl1999.781(1999).
  28. Y. Nagaya and M. Saiki, 'Accumulation of radionuclides in coastal sediment of japan (I). Fallout radionuclides in some coastal sediments in 1964-1965,' J Radiat. Res., 8,37-43(1967) https://doi.org/10.1269/jrr.8.37
  29. K. Nakamura and Y. Nagaya, 'Accumulation of radionuclides in coastal sediment of Japan (II). Contents of fission products in some coastal sediments collected In 1966-1972,' J. Radiat. Res., 16, 184-192(1975)
  30. J. M. Smith, K. M. Ellis, K. Naes, S. Dahle and D. Matishov, 'Sedimentation and mixing rates of radionuclides in Barents Sea sediments off Novaya Zemlya,' Deep-Sea Res., 42, 1471-1493(1995)
  31. F. Garcia-Oliva, R. Martinez Lugo, and M. J. Maass, 'Soil 137Cs activity in a tropical deciduous ecosystem under pasture conversion in Mexico,' J. Environ. Radioactivity, 26, 37-49, (1995) https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(95)91631-D