Effects of Different Levels of Vitamin-Mineral Premixes on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Growing-Finishing Pigs

  • Tian, J.Z. ;
  • Lee, J.H. ;
  • Kim, J.D. ;
  • Han, Y.K. ;
  • Park, K.M. ;
  • Han, In K.
  • Received : 2000.08.19
  • Accepted : 2000.11.14
  • Published : 2001.04.01


Two experiments using growing and finishing pigs (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire) were conducted to determine the effects of different levels of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing-finishing pigs, and to evaluate the suitability of vitamin-mineral levels commonly used in the swine industry in Korea. A total of 120 three crossbred (Landrace$\times$Duroc$\times$Yorkshire) growing (Experiment I: 20.90 0.44 kg average initial body weight) and finishing (Experiment II: 53.55 0.97 kg average initial body weight) were used in 6 and 9 weeks feeding trials, respectively. Pigs were allotted on the basis of sex and weight to 5 treatments with 6 replications per treatment with 4 pigs per pen in a completely randomized block design. Treatments were: 1) control, 2) fat soluble vitamin 200% vs. control, 3) water soluble vitamin 200% vs. control, 4) trace mineral 50% vs. control, 5) trace mineral 200% vs. control. In experiment I, during the overall experimental period (0 to 6 weeks, 21 to 54 kg body weight), ADG of the 200% trace mineral supplemented group was significantly higher than that of the 50% trace mineral supplemented group. There were no significant differences among other the treatments. Digestibility of crude protein was lowest in mineral 50% supplemented group (p<0.05). Calcium digestibility was significantly higher in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group than in the other treatments (p<0.05). In experiment II, during the overall experimental period (0 to 9 weeks, 54 to 106 kg body weight), growth performance was not significantly affected by dietary vitamin and trace mineral levels. However, increasing level of water soluble vitamins at the level of 200% compared to control had a tendency to improve the overall growth performance. Overall carcass characteristics except for carcass length did not differ among pigs fed the dietary treatments. Loin eye area, pH, drip loss and shear force of meat were not affected by dietary vitamin and trace mineral levels. There was a trend for less fat content (%) in pork when the level of vitamin and trace mineral was increased, but the difference was not significant. Flavor score was the lowest in control and highest in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group (p<0.05). Juiciness of muscle was lower in the 200% fat soluble vitamin supplemented group than other dietary treatments, except for trace mineral 50% supplemented group (p<0.05). Based on these results, it is suggested that "typical" commercial levels of vitamin and trace minerals used by feed companies in Korea are sufficient to meet requirement for the maximum growth of growing-finishing pigs. Our results suggests that a reduction in trace mineral levels in commercial diets could be considered to reduce feed cost and nutrient excretion with economic and environmental benefits.


Pigs;Vitamin;Trace Mineral;Growth;Nutrient Digestibility;Carcass Characteristic;Meat Quality

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