State-of-the-art of advanced inelastic analysis of steel and composite structures

  • Liew, J.Y. Richard (Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Singapore)
  • Published : 2001.09.25


This paper provides a state-of-the-art review on advanced analysis models for investigating the load-displacement and ultimate load behaviour of steel and composite frames subjected to static gravity and lateral loads. Various inelastic analysis models for steel and composite members are reviewed. Composite beams under positive and negative moments are analysed using a moment-curvature relationship which captures the effects of concrete cracking and steel yielding along the members length. Beam-to-column connections are modeled using rotational spring. Building core walls are modeled using thin-walled element. Finally, the nonlinear behaviour of a complete multi-storey building frame consisting of a centre core-wall and the perimeter frames for lateral-load resistance is investigated. The performance of the total building system is evaluated in term of its serviceability and ultimate limit states.


advanced analysis;core-braced frame;composite beams;nonlinear analysis;performance-based design;plastic hinge analysis;semi-rigid frames;steel and composite structures;tall buildings


  1. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) (1993), LoaD And Resistance Factor Design Specifications, 2nd Ed., Chicago.
  2. Chen H, Liew, J Y R and Shanmugam N E, (2000), "Nonlinear inelastic analysis of building frames with thinwalled cores", Thin-Walled Structures, Elsevier, 37, 189-205.
  3. El-Tawil, S and Deierlein G.G. (2001), "Nonlinear Analysis of mixed steel-concrete frames I: element formulation", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 127(6), 647-655.
  4. Fang, L.X., Chan, S.L. and Wong, Y.L. (2000), "Numerical analysis of composite frames with partial shear-stud interaction by one element per member", Eng. Struct., 22, 1285-1300.
  5. Hsieh, S.H. and Deierlein, G.G. (1991), "Nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional frames with semi-rigid connections", Comp. Struct., 41(5), 995-1009.
  6. Li, T.Q., Choo, B.S., and Nethercot, D.A. (1993), "Moment curvature relations for steel and composite beams", J. Singapore Structural Steel Society, Steel Structures. 4(1), 35-51.
  7. Leon, R. (1990), "Semi-rigid composite construction", J. Construct. Steel Res., 15(1-2), 99-120.
  8. Liew J.Y.R. (2001), A Resource for Structural Steel Design and Construction, SSSS/BCA Joint Publication, Singapore 83p.
  9. Liew, J.Y.R., Chen, H., Shanmugam, N.E., and Chen, W.F. (2000), "Improved nonlinear plastic hinge analysis of space frame structures", Engrg. Struct., Elsevier, 22(10), 1324-1338.
  10. Liew J.Y.R. and Uy B. (2001), "Advanced analysis in steel and composite frames", Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, In Press.
  11. Liew J.Y.R., Chen H, and Shanmugam N.E. (2001), "Nonlinear analysis of steel frames with composite beams", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 127(2), 361-370.
  12. Liew J.Y.R. White D.W. and Chen W.F. (1993a), "Second-order refined plastic hinge analysis for frame design: Parts 1 and 2", J. Struct. Eng., ASCE, 119(11), 3196-3237.
  13. Liew, J.Y.R., White D.W. and Chen W.F. (1993b), "Limit-states design of semi-rigid frames using advanced analysis: Parts 1: Connection modelling classification, Part 2: Analysis and design", J. Constr. Steel Res., Elsevier, 26(1), 1-57.
  14. Viest, I.M., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffis, L.G., Leon, R.T. and Wyllie, L.A. (1997), Composite Construction Design for Buildings, McGraw Hill, New York.
  15. White, D.W., R.J.Y. Liew and W.F. Chen (1993), Toward advanced analysis in LRFD, Plastic Hinge Based Methods for Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames, Bethlehem: Structural Stability Research Council, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA, 95-173.

Cited by

  1. Inelastic analysis for the post-collapse behavior of concrete encased steel composite columns under axial compression vol.19, pp.5, 2015,
  2. A Second-Order Inelastic Analysis of Plane Steel Frames Using a Work-Increment-Control Solution Technique vol.13, pp.6, 2010,
  3. Experimental studies on composite haunch beams vol.75, 2012,