Tests and mechanics model for concrete-filled SHS stub columns, columns and beam-columns

  • Han, Lin-Hai ;
  • Zhao, Xiao-Ling ;
  • Tao, Zhong
  • Published : 2001.03.25


A series of tests on concrete-filled SHS (Square Hollow Section) stub columns (twenty), columns (eight) and beam-columns (twenty one) were carried out. The main parameters varied in the tests are (1) Confinement factor (${\xi}$) from 1.08 to 5.64, (2) concrete compression strength from 10.7MPa to 36.6MPa, (3) tube width to thickness ratio from 20.5 to 36.5. (4) load eccentricity (e) from 15 mm to 80 mm and (5) column slenderness (${\lambda}$) from 45 to 75. A mechanics model is developed in this paper for concrete-filled SHS stub columns, columns and beam-columns. A unified theory is described where a confinement factor (${\xi}$) is introduced to describe the composite action between the steel tube and filled concrete. The predicted load versus axial strain relationship is in good agreement with stub column test results. Simplified models are derived for section capacities and modulus in different stages of the composite sections. The predicted beam-column strength is compared with that of 331 beam-column tests with a wide range of parameters. A good agreement is obtained. The predicted load versus midspan deflection relationship for beam-columns is in good agreement with test results. A simplified model is developed for calculating the member capacity of concrete-filled SHS columns. Comparisons are made with predicted columns strengths using the existing codes such as LRFD (AISC 1994), AIJ (1997), and EC4 (1996). Simplified interaction curves are derived for concrete-filled beam-columns.


composite actions;concrete-filled tubes;mechanics model;steel hollow sections;stub columns;columns;beam-columns;constraining factor;section capacity;member capacity


  1. Uy, B. (1998), "Local and post-local buckling of concrete filled steel welded box columns", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 47, 47-72.
  2. Uy, B., Wright, H.D. and Diedricks, A.A. (1998), "Local buckling of cold-formed steel sections filled with concrete", Proc., 2nd International Conference on Thin-Walled Structures, Singapore, 367-374
  3. Zhang, Z.G. (1989), "Behaviour of concrete-filled SHS beam-columns", Constructional Structures, Issue No. 6, 10-20 (in Chinese).
  4. Zhang, Z.G. (1993), "Stability analysis of concrete-filled shs slender columns", Journal of Constructional Structures, Issue No. 8, 28-390 (in Chinese).
  5. Zhao, X.L. and Grzebieta, R.H. (1999), "Void-filled SHS beams subjected to large deformation cyclic bending", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 125(9), 1020-1027.
  6. Zhao, X.L., Grzebieta, R.H., Wong, P. and Lee, C. (1999), "Void-filled RHS sections subjected to cyclic axial tension and compression", Advances in Steel Structures, Chan and Teng (eds), Elsevier, 1, 429-436.
  7. Zhao, X.L. and Hancock, G.J. (1991), "Tests to determine plate slenderness limits for cold-formed rectangular hollow sections of grade C450", Steel Construction, Australian Institute of Steel Construction, 25(4), 2-16.
  8. Nakai, et al. (1994), "Experimental study on ultimate strength and ductility of concrete filled thin-walled steel box columns after receiving seismic loading", J. Structural Engineering, JSCE, 40A, 1401-1412 (in Japanese).
  9. Nakamura, T. (1994), "Experimental study on compression strength of concrete-filled square tubular steel columns", J. Struct. Engrg, 40B, 411-417.
  10. O'shea, M. and Bridge, R.Q. (1997), "The design for local buckling of concrete filled steel tubes", ASCCS Seminar, September, Innsbruck, Austria, 319-324.
  11. Pan, Y.G. (1988), "Analysis of complete curve of concrete filled steel tubular stub columns under axial compression", Proc. of International Conference on Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Structures(including Composite Beams), Harbin, P. R. China, 87-93.
  12. SAA. (1996), Cold-Formed Steel Structures, Australian/New Zealand Standards AS/NZS 4600, Standards Australia, Sydney, Australia.
  13. Shams, M. and Saadeghvaziri, M.A. (1997), "State of the art of concrete-filled steel tubular columns", ACI Structural Journal, 94(5), 558-571.
  14. Schneider, S.P. (1998), "Axially loaded concrete-filled steel tubes", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 124(10), 1125-1138.
  15. Song, J.Y. and Kwon, Y.B. (1997), "Structural behavior of concrete-filled steel box sections", Int. Confer. Report on Composite Construction-Conventional and Innovative, Innsbruck, Austria, 795-801.
  16. Tao, Z., Han, L.H. and Zhao, X.L. (1998), "Behaviour of square concrete filled steel tubes subjected to axial compression", Proceedings of The Fifth International Conference on Structural Engineering for Young Experts, Shenyang, P.R. China, 61-67.
  17. Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1977), "Experimental study of concrete filled steel tubular stub columns under concentric loading", Proc. of the Int. Colloquium on Stability Of Structures under Static and Dynamic Loads, SSRC/ASCE/Washington, D.C./ March 17-19, 718-741.
  18. Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1979a), "Experimental studies on the ultimate moment of concrete filled square steel tubular beam-columns", Trans. of A.I.J. No. 275, Jan. 55-63.
  19. Tomii, M. and Sakino, K. (1979b), "Elasto-plastic behavior of concrete filled square steel tubular beamcolumns", Trans. Of A.I. J, No. 280 (June), Tokyo, Japan, 111-120.
  20. Trezona, J.R. and Warner, R.F. (1997), "Strength of concrete-filled circular steel tubular columns", Research Report No. R147, January, Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide.
  21. Tsuda, K., Matsui, C. (1998), "Limitation on width (Diameter)-thickness ratio of steel tubes of composite tubes and concrete columns with encased type section", Proc. of Fifth Pacific Structural Steel Conf., Seoul, Korea, 865-870.
  22. Uy, B. (1997), "Ductility and strength of thin-walled concrete filled box columns," Int. Confer. Report on Composite Construction-Conventional and Innovative. Innsbruck, Austria, 801-806.
  23. Eurocode 4. (1996), "Design of steel and concrete structures, Part1. 1,General rules and rules doe building", DD ENV 1994-1-1: British Standards Institution, London W1A2BS.
  24. Furlong, R.W. (1967), "Strength of steel-encased concrete beam-columns", J. Struct. Engrg., ASCE, 93(5), 113-124.
  25. Ge, H.B. and Usami, T. (1992), "Strength of concrete-filled thin-walled steel box columns: Experiment", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 118(11), 3006-3054.
  26. Ge, H. B. and Usami, T. (1994), "Strength analysis of concrete-filled thin-walled steel box columns", Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 30, 607-612.
  27. Ge, H. B. and Usami, T. (1996), "Cyclic tests of concrete filled steel box columns", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 122(10), 1169-1177.
  28. Han, L.H.(1998), "Fire resistance of concrete filled steel tubular columns", Advances in Structural Engineering An International Journal, 2(1), 35-39.
  29. Han, L. H. (2000), "Concrete filled steel tubular structures", Peking, Science Press (in Chinese).
  30. Kato, B. (1995), "Compressive behaviors of concrete filled steel stub columns", Transactions of A.I. J., No. 468, 183-191 (in Japanese).
  31. Kitada, T. (1998), "Ultimate strength and ductility of state-of-the-art concrete-filled steel bridge piers in Japan", Engineering Structures, 20(4-6), 347-354.
  32. Knowles, R.B. and Park, R. (1969), "Strength of concrete filled steel tubular columns", J. Struct. Engrg., ASCE, 95(12), 2565-2587.
  33. Li, S.P., Huo, D., Wang, Q., Guo, Y.C. and Huang, Y.Y. (1998), "Compression strengths of concrete-filled SHS columns", Journal of Constructional Structures, Issue No. 2, 41-51 (in Chinese).
  34. Liu, Z.Y. and Goel, S. (1988), "Cyclic load behaviour of concrete-filled tubular braces", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 114(7), 1488-1506.
  35. Lu, X.L., Yu, Y. and Chen, Y.Y. (1999), "Tests on the behavior of concrete filled steel tubes subjected to axial compression", Building Construction, No. 10, 41-43 (in Chinese).
  36. Mander, J.B., Priestley, M.J.N. and Park, R. (1988a), "Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 114(8), 1804-1826.
  37. Mander, J.B., Priestley, M.J.N. and Park, R. (1988b), "Observed stress-strain behaviour of confined concrete", Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 114(8), 1827-1849.
  38. Murray, N.W. (1986), "Introduction to the theory of thin-walled structures", Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK.
  39. Matsui, C., Mitani, I., Kawano, A. and Tsuda, K. (1997), "AIJ design method for concrete filled tubular structures", ASCCS Seminar, September, Innsbruck, 93-116.
  40. Nakai, et al. (1986), "An analysis on ultimate strength of concrete filled rectangular steel tubular columns subjected to compression and bending", Proceedings, Civil Engineering, No. 374 (I-6), October, 447-456 (in Japanese).
  41. ASCCS (1997), "Concrete filled steel tubes - a comparison of international codes and practices", ASCCS Seminar, Innsbruck, September.
  42. AISC (1994), "Load and resistance factor design specification for structural steel buildings", American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, September.
  43. Architectural Institute of Japan (AIJ) (1997), "Recommendations for design and construction of concrete filled steel tubular structures", Oct.
  44. Bergmann, R. et al. (1995), "Design guide for concrete-filled hollow section columns under static and seismic loading", CIDECT, Verlag TUV Rheinland GmbH, Koln, Germany.
  45. Bridge, R.Q., O'Shea, M.D., Gardener, P., Grigson, R. and Tyrell, J. (1995), "Local buckling of square thinwalled steel tubes with concrete infill", in Structural Stability and Design, Kitiporchai, Hancock, Bradford (eds), Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 307-314.
  46. Bridge, R.Q. (1976). "Concrete filled steel tubular columns", Civil Engineering Transactions, 127-133.
  47. Cederwall, K., Engstrom, B. and Grauers, M. (1969), "High-strength concrete used in composite columns", High-Strength Concrete, SP121-11, 195-210.

Cited by

  1. Static behavior of axially compressed square concrete filled CFRP-steel tubular (S-CF-CFRP-ST) columns with moderate slenderness vol.110, 2017,
  2. Performance of concrete-encased CFST box stub columns under axial compression vol.3, 2015,
  3. Flexural Performances of Square Concrete Filled CFRP-Steel Tubes (S-CF-CFRP-ST) vol.18, pp.8, 2015,
  4. Experimental study on impact behaviour of concrete-filled steel tubes at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C vol.47, pp.1-2, 2014,
  5. Research on axial bearing capacity of rectangular concrete-filled steel tubular columns based on artificial neural networks vol.11, pp.5, 2017,
  6. Concrete-filled circular steel tubes subjected to local bearing force: Finite element analysis vol.77, 2014,
  7. P-M Relations of Slender Welded Built-up Square CFT Column under Eccentric Loads vol.6, pp.2, 2015,
  8. Inelastic response prediction of CFST columns and connections subjected to lateral loading vol.132, 2017,
  9. Behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete filled stainless steel stub columns vol.47, pp.1-2, 2014,
  10. Experimental behavior and analysis of prestressed concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) truss girders vol.152, 2017,
  11. Behaviour and design of square concrete-filled double skin tubular columns with inner circular tubes vol.100, 2015,
  12. Experimental behaviour of box concrete-encased CFST eccentrically loaded column vol.65, pp.20, 2013,
  13. Mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tube stub columns after exposure to elevated temperatures vol.146, 2017,
  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Composite Frames with Innovative Composite Transfer Beams vol.143, pp.7, 2017,
  15. Post-fire residual strength of steel tubular T-joint with concrete-filled chord vol.139, 2017,
  16. Compressive performances of concrete filled Square CFRP-Steel Tubes (S-CFRP-CFST) vol.16, pp.5, 2014,
  17. Experimental investigation on flexural behavior of concrete-filled pentagonal flange beam under concentrated loading vol.84, 2014,
  18. Finite element analysis on the structural behaviour of square CFST beams vol.210, 2017,
  19. A theoretical axial stress-strain model for circular concrete-filled-steel-tube columns vol.125, 2016,
  21. Effects of Core Concrete Initial Imperfection on Performance of Eccentrically Loaded CFST Columns vol.142, pp.12, 2016,
  22. Application of earthquake-induced collapse analysis in design optimization of a supertall building vol.25, pp.17, 2016,
  23. Behaviour of concrete-encased CFST columns under combined compression and bending vol.101, 2014,
  24. Axial behaviour of rectangular concrete-filled cold-formed steel tubular columns with different loading methods vol.18, pp.1, 2015,
  25. Effective stress-strain relationships for analysis of noncompact and slender filled composite (CFT) members vol.124, 2016,
  26. FRP–HSC–steel composite columns: behavior under monotonic and cyclic axial compression vol.48, pp.4, 2015,
  27. Experimental Behavior of Concrete-Filled Stainless Steel Tubular Columns under Cyclic Lateral Loading vol.143, pp.4, 2017,
  28. Modeling of high-strength composite special moment frames (C-SMFs) for seismic analysis vol.138, 2017,
  29. Performance of flange-welded/web-bolted steel I-beam to hollow tubular column connections under seismic load vol.116, 2017,
  30. Experimental behavior and design method of rectangular concrete-filled tubular columns using Q460 high-strength steel vol.125, 2016,
  31. Experimental Behaviour of Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) Filled Hollow Structural Steel (HSS) Columns Subjected to Cyclic Loadings vol.8, pp.5, 2005,
  32. Global seismic performance of a new precast CFST column to RC beam braced frame: Shake table test and numerical study vol.21, pp.4, 2016,
  33. Experimental and numerical studies on impact behaviors of recycled aggregate concrete-filled steel tube after exposure to elevated temperature vol.136, 2017,
  34. Behavior of concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) members under lateral impact: Experiment and FEA model vol.80, 2013,
  35. Finite element modelling of concrete-filled steel stub columns under axial compression vol.89, 2013,
  36. Residual Strength of Concrete Filled RHS Stub Columns after Exposure to High Temperatures vol.5, pp.2, 2002,
  37. FE modelling of the flexural behaviour of square and rectangular steel tubes filled with normal and high strength concrete vol.119, 2017,
  38. Load-Strain Model for Steel-Concrete-FRP-Concrete Columns in Axial Compression vol.20, pp.5, 2016,
  39. Circular concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns under cyclic load and acid rain attack: Test simulation vol.122, 2018,
  40. Concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) truss girders: Experimental tests, analysis, and design vol.156, 2018,
  41. Behavior of CFDST stub columns under preload, sustained load and chloride corrosion vol.107, 2015,
  42. Analytical model and design formulae of circular CFSTs under axial tension vol.133, 2017,
  43. Behavior of square tubed steel reinforced-concrete (SRC) columns under eccentric compression vol.91, 2015,
  44. Seismic Analysis and Performance of High Strength Composite Special Moment Frames (C-SMFs) vol.9, 2017,
  45. Element mesh, section discretization and material hysteretic laws for fiber beam–column elements of composite structural members vol.48, pp.8, 2015,
  46. Calculation Method of Intumescent Coatings of Fire Protection for Concrete-Filled Hollow Structural Steel Columns vol.339, pp.1662-8985, 2011,
  47. Outsourcing of Concrete Filled Steel Tube Strengthened CFST Axial Compression Short Columns Finite Element Analysis vol.525, pp.1662-7482, 2014,
  48. Residual Strength of Steel-Reinforced Concrete-Filled Square Steel Tubular (SRCFST) Stub Columns After Exposure to ISO-834 Standard Fire pp.2093-6311, 2018,
  49. Experimental Investigation of Concrete-Filled High-Strength Steel Tubular X Joints vol.144, pp.10, 2018,
  50. Behaviour of concrete-filled steel tubular members under pure bending and acid rain attack: Test simulation pp.2048-4011, 2018,
  51. High-Strength Rectangular CFT Members: Database, Modeling, and Design of Short Columns vol.144, pp.5, 2018,
  52. Double skin composite construction vol.8, pp.3, 2006,