Role of PI3-kinase and MAP Kinases in the ARE-mediated Glutathione S-Transferase Induction by Phytochemicals: Comparison with the Oxidative Stress Caused by Decreased Glutathione

  • Published : 2001.07.01


The expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes is affected by a variety of compounds and the induction of the enzymes plays an essential role in chemoprevention. A variety of phytochemicals such as sulfur-containing chemoprotective agents (SCC) may trigger cellular signals and activate phase II gene expression through ARE activation. see induces glutathione S-transferases. Studies were conducted to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) in the induction of GST (e.g. rGSTA2) by sec. We also studied the MAP kinase pathway responsible for the GST expression by see and compared that with the pathway activated by oxidative stress as a result of sulfur amino acids deprivation (SAAD). see inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 although the effect of see on JNK and p38 MAP kinase was minimal. Wortmannin and LY294002. PI3-kinase inhibitors. abolished the increases in rGSTA2 mRNA and protein levels by SCC. Deprivation of cystine and methionine caused oxidative stress in H4IIE cells. as evidenced by a decrease in the reduced glutathione and an increase in prooxidant production. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the ARE complex consisting of Nrf-1/2 and Maf proteins was activated 12~48 h. The rGSTA2 mRNA and protein levels were increased by SAAD. Activation of ARE and induction of rGSTA2 were both completely inhibited by PI3-kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase by SB203580 prevented the ARE-mediated rGSTA2 induction. The results of this study showed that PI3-kinase might play an essential role in the ARE-mediated rGSTA2 induction by see or SAAD and that the dual MAP kinase pathways were responsible for the enzyme induction.