Production of Red Ginseng Specific Ginsenosides $(Rg_2, Rg_3, Rh_1 and Rh_2)$ from Agrobacterium-transformed hairy Roots of Panax ginseng by Heat Treatment

  • Published : 2001.03.01


It was reported that Red ginseng contains specific ginsenoside-Rg$_2$,-Rg$_3$,-Rh$_1$and -Rh$_2$, which show various pharmacological effects. However, production of these specific ginsenosides from Red ginseng is not commercially applicable because of high cost of the raw material, roots. This work was carried out to examine the production of Red ginseng specific ginsenosides from Agrobacterium-transformed hairy roots. Hairy roots were induced from 3 year-old root segment of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) after infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4. Among many lines of hairybroots, KGHR-8A was selected. Steam heat treatment of hairy roots was resulted in the changes of ginsenoside composition. Eleven ginsenosides were detected in heat-treated hairy roots but eight in freeze dried hairy roots. In heat treated hairy root, content of ginsenoside-Rb$_1$,Rb$_2$,Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, and Rg$_1$were decreased compared to those of freeze dried hairy roots. However, heat treatment strongly enhanced the amount of Red ginseng specific ginsenogides (ginsenoside-Rg$_2$,-Rg$_3$,-Rh$_1$and -Rh$_2$). Amounts of ginsenoside-Rg$_3$,-Rh$_1$and -Rh$_2$ in heat-treated hairy roots were 2.58, 3.62 and 1.08 mg/g dry wt, respectively, but these were detected as trace amount in hairy roots without heat treatment. Optimum condition of heat treatment for the production of Red ginseng specific ginsenoside was 2 h at 105$^{\circ}C$. This result represents that Red ginseng specific ginsenoside can be producted from hairy roots by steam heat treatment.


  1. Kor.Ginseng Sci. v.20 Studies of the physiological and biochemical effects of Korean ginseng Jung N.P.;S.H. Jin
  2. Tetrahedron Lett. v.3 Studies on saponins and sapogenins of ginseng: the structure of panaxatriol. Shibata S.;O. Tanaka;K. Soma;Y. Iita;T. Ando;H. Nakamura
  3. Kor. J. Ginseng Sci. v.20 Recent studies on the chemical constituents of Korean ginseng(Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Park J.D.
  4. Yakugaku Zasshi v.103 Chemical studies on crude drug precession : 1. The constituents of ginseng radix rubra Kitagawa I.;M. Yoshikawa;M. Yoshihara;T. Ha6yashi;T. Taniyama
  5. Biol. Pharm Bull. v.18 Inhibitory effect of tumor metastasis in mice by saponins, ginsenoside-Rb2,20(R)-,and 20(s)-ginsenoside-Rg3 Mochizuki M.;Y.C. Yoo;K. Matsuzawa;K. Sato;I. Saiki;O.S.Tono;K.I. Samukawa
  6. J. Neurosci. Res. v.53 Ginsenosides Rba and Rg3 protect cultured rat cortical cells from glutamate-induced neurodegeneration Kim Y.C.;S.R. Kim;G.J. Markelonis;T.H. Oh
  7. Kor. J. Ginseng Sci. v.15 Preparation of 20 (R) - and 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rh1 from ginsenoside Re. KIm S.I.;J.D. Park;Y.H. Lee;G.Y. Nam;N.I. Baek
  8. Yakhak Hoeji v.35 Preparation of a 20 (R)- ginsenoside Rh2 and the 20 (S) epimer from protopanaxadiol saponins of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Kim S.I.;N.I. Baek;D.S. Kim;Y.H. Lee;S.K. Kang;J.D. Park
  9. Cancer Lett v.121 Activation of caspase-3 protease via a Bc1-2-insensitive pathway during the process of ginsenoside Rh2-induced apotosis Park J.A.;K.Y. Lee;Y.J. Oh;K.W. Kim;S.K. Lee
  10. Anticancer Drugs v.2 Inhibition of human ovarian cancer cell proliferation in vitro by ginsenoside-Rh2 and adjuvant effects to Cisplatin in vivo. Kikuchi Y.;H. Sasa;T. Kita;J. Hirata;T. Tode
  11. Intl. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. v.30 Ginsenoside Rh2 and Rh3 induce differentiation of HL-60 cells into granulocytes: Modulation of protein kinase C isoforms during differentiation by ginsenoside Rh2 Kim Y.S.;D.S. Kim;S.I. Kim
  12. Proc. 6th Int'l. Differentiation mechanism of ginsenosides in cultured murine F9 teratocarcinoma stem cells Lee H.Y.;S.I. Kim;S.K. Lee;H.Y. Chung;K.W. Kim
  13. Japanse J. Cancer Res. v.89 Inhibitory effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on tumor growth in nude mice bearing human ovarian cancer cells Nakata H.;Y. Kikuchi;T. Tode;J. Hirata;T. Kita;K. Ishii;K. Kudoh;I. Nagata
  14. Kor. J. Plant Tissue Culture v.25 Selection of active grow hairy root lines in ginseng Yang D.C.;Y.H. Kim;D.C. Yang;B.H. Min;S.L. SL;K.T. Choi
  15. Physiol Plant. v.15 A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue culture Murashige T.;F. Skoog
  16. Exp. Cell Res. v.50 Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells Gamborg O.L.;R.A. Miller;K. Ojima
  17. Syoyakugaku Zasshi v.25 Chemical studies on the oriental plant drugs. XXV. Comparative studies on the saponins and sapogenins of ginseng and related crude drugs. Ando T.;O. Tanaka;S. Shibata