Mineral Chemistry and Geochemistry of the Bentonites Intercalated within the Basal Conglomerates of the Tertiary Sediments in Korea and Their Stratigraphical Implication

제3기층 기저역암에 협재되는 벤토나이트의 광물학, 지화학적 연구 및 층서적 적용

  • 이종천 (영국 임페리얼칼리지) ;
  • 이규호 (연세대학교 지구시스템과학과) ;
  • 문희수 (연세대학교 지구시스템과학과)
  • Published : 2001.02.01


Bentonite layers are intercalated within the basal conglomerates in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of Kampo, Janggi and Pohang, southeastern Korea. Eighteen samples of the bentonites went through X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, heavy mineral analyses, chemical analyses and oxygen, hydrogen stable isotope analyses to define the mineralogical characters of the bentonites. Heavy minerals such as zircons, apatites, amphiboles and biotites separated from bentonites show clean and euhedral surfaces, which are the characteristic features of volcanic origin. But biotites from the Chunbook Conglomerate are found as altered and heavily broken flakes which implies longer transportation of these bentonites. $TiO_{2}/Al_{2}O_{3} ratios of <2 $\mu$m particle fractions (the Chunbook Conglomerate 0.031; Janggi 0.029; Kampo 0.025) suggest that those are originated from volcanic tuffs. That is, the higher the value is, the more mafic in chemical compositions of the original tuffs. Authigenic montmorillonite and zeolite minerals were observed by SEM, which indicates diagenesis origin of bentonites. But the samples from the Chunbook Conglomerate showed only chaotically packed clay flakes in the matrix of sands or conglomerates, which implies detrital influence, not authigenic origin. The structural formulae of montmorillonite from these basins reflects their environment of formation. Fe (Ⅵ) can show the redox condition of its past environment and much lower $Fe^{2+}(Ⅵ)/Fe^{3+}(Ⅵ)$ ratios in montmorillonite of the Chunbook Conglomerate imply the greater oxidizing influence. Calculated burial depths from oxygen stable isotope data of the samples from the Chunbook Conglomerate generally fall to the range of 929~963 m whereas the real burial depth of this area is only 530~580 m. This could be explained as the bentonites of the Chunbook conglomerate had not been formed in situ. Discriminant analyses with the data from chemical analyses and structural formulae of montmorillonites show that bentonites from three different basins could definitely be distinguished with each other. This result arises from the different chemical compositions of original volcanic ashes and the difference of sedimentary environments.


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