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Effect of Graded Levels of Tallow in the Diet on Performance, Digestibility of Fat, Lipogenesis and Body Lipid Deposition of the Weaned Piglet

  • Reis de Souza, T.C. ;
  • Aumaitre, A. ;
  • Mourot, J. ;
  • Peiniau, J.
  • Received : 1999.03.16
  • Accepted : 1999.06.23
  • Published : 2000.04.01

Abstract

Thirty piglets weaned at 24.5 d of age ($6.9{\pm}0.5kg$) randomly alloted to 3 treatments were used to investigate the effect of dietary tallow on average performance, digestibility of nutrients, metabolic utilization of energy and body composition at 25 kg. Weaned piglets respond to increasing levels of dietary tallow from 0 to 4% and 8% by digestive and metabolic adaptation. Apparent fecal digestibility of fat (AFDf) was highly correlated with the level of dietary tallow (X as % of fat extracted after HCl hydrolysis) by the following curvilinear equation of regression: $AFDf=33.8+6.9X-0.3X^2$. Feed intake expressed as DE was only significantly increased at the higher inclusion level of tallow. But neither average daily gain, nor feed conversion was affected by the addition of fat. On the other hand, body composition at 25 kg was equally affected, by both levels of supplementary fat; dry matter and energy content in the body were significantly higher (p<0.01) in piglets receiving tallow. As a consequence, the energy cost of the live weight gain was also increased from 23 to 24.7 MJ DE/kg (p<0.02) and the efficiency of energy deposition was decreased from 3.2 to 2.8 MJ DE/MJ deposited energy (p<0.01) in the presence of dietary tallow. An increase in the level of fat stimulated the activity of pancreatic lipase up to a constant value of $22{\pm}1.4IU/mg$ protein but conversely depressed the activity of amylase from 300 to 100 IU/mg of protein. The activity of liver acetyl CoA carboxylase and malic enzyme in the perirenal fat were low lind not affected by dietary fat; the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was high. Opposite to that, the activity of acetyl CoA carboxylase and malic enzyme in the perirenal and backfat were higher than in the liver and both were significantly reduced by the inclusion of fat in the diet. A direct deposition of dietary fat has been demonstrated by increasing the energy and lipid content of the empty body weight gain between 7 and 25 kg of live weight, and decreasing the efficiency of digestible energy utilization.

Keywords

Dietary Fat;Digestibility;Pancreas;Lipogenesis;Piglet

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