Cattle Production on Small Holder Farms in East Java, Indonesia: I. Household and Farming Characteristics

  • Winarto, P.S. (Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Brawijaya) ;
  • Leegwater, P.H. (Animal Production Systems Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences (WIAS) Wageningen Agricultural University) ;
  • ;
  • Ibrahim, M.N.M. (Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya)
  • Received : 1998.12.08
  • Accepted : 1999.04.30
  • Published : 2000.02.01


A general household survey was carried out in the village of Sonoageng in East Java, Indonesia with the aim to assess their socio-economic status, and the crop and livestock production system prevailing in the area. Of the households interviewed (164), 52% are landless, 35% own land or have a combination of own and shared land, and 12% do not own land but have access to land by sharing. Nearly two thirds (65%) of the households raise cattle; most of them own animals, 8% reared shared animals only. The dominant crop was rice; other crops grown were soya bean, groundnut, maize and sugar cane. Nearly half (47%) the household income was derived from off-farm work (non-agricultural activities), 33% from crops, 13% from livestock (mainly cattle), and 7% from agricultural labour. Most households kept 1 to 2 animals and only 21 out of 164 households earned more than Rp. 500,000 (~250 US$) per annum from livestock. The most prevalent type of livestock production in the area could be characterized as small-scale cow/calf operation, either by landless households or those with <0.4 ha of land.