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Effects of Sodium Sulfite and Extrusion on the Nutritional Value of Soybean Products for Nursery Pigs

  • Burnham, L.L. (Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University) ;
  • Kim, I.H. (Department of Animal Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Kang, J.O. (Department of Animal Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Rhee, H.W. (Department of Animal Sciences, Dankook University) ;
  • Hancock, J.D. (Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, Kansas State University)
  • Received : 2000.04.28
  • Accepted : 2000.06.16
  • Published : 2000.11.01

Abstract

Three hundred nursery pigs were used in two growth assays (avg initial BW of 6.5 and 6.0 kg, respectively) to determine the effects of sodium sulfite ($Na_2SO_3$) as an extrusion aid for soy products used in diets for weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, treatments were arranged as $3{\times}2$ factorial with main effects of soy product [soybean meal (SBM), extruded SBM, and dry-extruded whole soybeans (DEWS)] and concentration of $Na_2SO_3$ (0 and 10 g/kg of soy product). The extruded SBM and DEWS treatments were processed in a dry extruder ($Insta-Pro^{(R)} $, Triple F Nutrition, Des Moines, IA) with barrel temperatures and throughputs of $169^{\circ}C$ and 578 kg/h, and $147^{\circ}C$ and 598 kg/h, respectively. All diets were formulated to 3.5 Mcal/kg DE, with 0.92% lysine for d 0 to 14, and 0.76% lysine for d 14 to 28. For d 0 to 14, there was a tendency for pigs fed diets with $Na_2SO_3$ to have greater ADG (p<0.08), and pigs fed SBM to have greater ADFI (p<0.02), thus pigs fed the extruded soy products has 15% greater gain/feed than those fed SBM (p<0.007). For d 14 to 28, there were no differences in ADG or gain/feed among pigs fed diets with SBM and those fed diets with the extruded soy products (p>0.15). However, pigs fed DEWS had greater ADG than pigs fed extruded SBM, and pigs fed $Na_2SO_3$ had greater ADG and ADFI compared to those not fed $Na_2SO_3$ (p<0.02 and 0.08, respectively). The positive response in ADG and gain/feed to the addition of $Na_2SO_3$ resulted with SBM and extruded SBM treatments, and not with DEWS (interaction effect, p<0.04). Overall (d 0 to 28), pigs fed DEWS had greater ADG (p<0.01) and gain/feed (p<0.08) than pigs fed extruded SBM. Also pigs fed diets with $Na_2SO_3$ had greater ADG, ADFI, and gain/feed compared to those fed diets without $Na_2SO_3$ (p<0.002, 0.04, and 0.04, respectively). Exp. 2 was designed as a $2{\times}3$ factorial with main effects of soy product (SBM and DEWS) and concentration of $Na_2SO_3$ (none, 7.5, and 15.0 g/kg of soy product). As in Exp. 1, all diets were formulated to 3.5 Mcal/kg DE, with 0.92% lysine for d 0 to 13, and 0.76% lysine for d 13 to 53. At a constant processing temperature (148 to $149^{\circ}C$, $Na_2SO_3$ increased throughput of the extruder (578, 595, and 602 kg/h for the 0, 7.5, and 15.0 g/kg additions, respectively). For d 0 to 13, treatment had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but gain/feed decreased for pigs fed SBM with increasing concentrations of $Na_2SO_3$, and increased for pigs fed DEWS with increasing concentrations of $Na_2SO_3$ (SBM vs DEWS sulfite quadratic interaction, p<0.03). For d 13 to 35, pigs fed DEWS had greater ADG (p<0.01) and gain/feed (p<0.001) than pigs fed SBM. Also, ADFI decreased and gain/feed increased with increasing concentrations of $Na_2SO_3$ (linear effects, p<0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Overall, pigs fed the diets with DEWS had greater ADG and gain/feed than pigs fed SBM (p<0.003 and 0.002, respectively), and $Na_2SO_3$ tended to decrease ADFI and increase gain/feed (linear effects, p<0.07 and 0.06, respectively). In conclusion, pigs fed DEWS had greater rate and efficiency of gain than pigs fed SBM. Also, adding $Na_2SO_3$ prior to extrusion increased yield and feed efficiency.

Keywords

Pigs;Extrusion;Soybean;Sodium Sulfite;Growth;Digestibility

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