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Nutrient Requirements of Exercising Swamp Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. II. Details of Work Energy of Cows and Its Relation to Heart Rate

  • Mahardika, I.G. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Udayana University) ;
  • Sastradipradja, D. (Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bogor Agricultural University(IPB)) ;
  • Sutardi, T. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Bogor Agricultural University) ;
  • Sumadi, I.K. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Udayana University)
  • Received : 1999.10.13
  • Accepted : 2000.01.13
  • Published : 2000.07.01

Abstract

Four young swamp buffalo cows of similar age ranging in body weight (W) between 280 to 380 kg and trained for doing physical exercise were used in two consecutive experiments, each using a latin square design, to determine energy expenditure for draught. The experiments consisted of field trials using 4 levels of work load, i.e. no work as control and loads amounting 450 to 500 Newton (N) continuous traction for respectively 1, 2 and 3 h daily for 14 consecutive days for experiment 1, and no work, traction loads equaling 5, 10 and 15% of W for 3 h daily for 14 days for experiment 2. Heart rate during rest and exercise was monitored using PE-3000 HR monitor. Cows were fed only king grass (Penisetum purpuroides) ad libitum and were subjected to balance trials. Body composition was estimated in vivo by the body density method and daily energy expenditure (EE) was calculated from ME minus RE. RE was calculated from the changes in body-protein and -fat measured before and immediately after the 14 d experimental period assuming an energy equivalent of 39.32 MJ/kg fat and 20.07 MJ/kg protein. $E_{exercise}$ ($EE_{work}\;-\;EE_{resting}$), which was the energy spent for doing the traction during 1, 2 and 3 h was 7.13, 15.45 and 19.90 MJ, respectively. $EE_{work}$ for the 1 h treatment group was 39.75 MJ/d equivalent to 1.30 times $EE_{resting}$. The values for the 2 and 3 h treatment groups were 1.75 and 1.86 times resting energy requirement, respectively. Absolute efficiency of work in all exercise trials of experiment 2 was around 27.28%. The increases of daily $E_{exercise}$ values were correlated to elevation of heart rate (HR) according to the equation $E_{exercise}=(0.270HR^{0.363}\;-\;1)$ MJ, while draught force related to heart rate according to the equation DF (N)=6.66 HR - 361.62. Blood glucose and triglyceride levels were gradually elevated with time during the course of exercise. Mean values of blood glucose were 91.7, 115.0 and 116.2 mg/dl for cows after 1, 2 and 3 h pulling loads at 15% W respectively as compared to 88.2 mg/dl prior to work. In the same order and treatment, mean blood triglyceride concentrations were 13.5, 13.3 and 14.8 mg/dl, and 11.5 mg/dl for control. For blood lactate, the values were 1.68, 1.63 and 1.66 mM, and 0.80 mM for control. Glucose was used as the major source of energy during the initial phase of exercise, but for prolonged work, fat will replace carbohydrate as the main substrate. Accumulation of lactate persisted for some time at the end of the exercise trials.

Keywords

Swamp Buffalo;Heart Rate;Glucose;Triglyceride;Exercise;Energy Expenditure;Draught Work