Effects of Seed Size and Several Factors on Ultra-drying and Germination of Ultra-dried Seeds in Soybean

  • Published : 2000.12.01

Abstract

Ultra-drying [<5.0% seed moisture content (SMC)] storage technique is a cost-effective storage method for oily seeds. To decide proper ultra-drying condition for soybean seeds, drying rate was compared three silica gel to seed ratios, two seed sizes with varietal difference, two kinds of container, and three seed amounts per container under :t 23$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. When the relative humidity (RH) was reduced at the rate of less than 0.1 % a day, silica gel was replaced with dry one by 47 days. Higher silica gel to seed ratios (3:1 and 2:1) dried faster than lower ratio (1:1) until 28 days, but not after 43 days of drying. Also, large seeded variety was dried faster than small seeded variety. Kinds of container and seed amounts per container didn't show differences in drying of soybean seeds. After completion of ultra-drying, percentage germination by standard germination test (SGT) was not different among silica gel to seed ratios, kinds of container, and seed amounts per container, except among seed sizes (varieties). Before SGT, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated ${CaCl}_2$ for 48 hours and ${NH}_4$Cl for 24 hours in desiccators. To compare germinability between ordinary-dried seeds and ultra-dried seeds, the seeds of seven soybean varieties, which were varying in size from 8.1 to 34.9 g per 100 seeds, were dried using same amount of silica gel under 23$\pm$1$^{\circ}C$. After completion of 76 days of drying, SMCs were reduced to 3.13-3.45% from 7.86-8.82%. SMC after completion of drying was not correlated with 100-seed weight (r=0.556). Before germination tests, soybean seeds were premoistened using saturated salt solutions. Percentage germination was higher with ultra-dried seeds than ordinary-dried seeds in SGT and higher with ordinary-dried seeds than ultra-dried seeds in AAT at the beginning of storage and after 6 months storage, but general trend of percentage germination was not observed among varieties classified by 100-seed weight. From these results, we concluded that further studies are needed to improve ultra-drying storage method for soybean seeds.