Determination of Optimal Conditions of Pressure Toasting on Legume Seeds for Dairy Deed Industry : I. Effects of Pressure Toasting on Nutritive Values of Lupinus albus in Lactating Dairy Cows

  • Yu, P. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University) ;
  • Goelema, J.O. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University) ;
  • Tamminga, S. (Department of Animal Nutrition, Wageningen Agricultural University)
  • Received : 1998.11.07
  • Accepted : 1999.01.25
  • Published : 1999.12.01


Whole lupinus albus seeds were pressure toasted at temperatures of 100, 118 and $136^{\circ}C$ for 3, 7, 15 and 30 min to study rumen degradation and post-rumen digestion and to determine optimal heating conditions for the Dutch dairy feed industry. In sacco nylon bag and mobile bag techniques were employed for rumen and intestine incubations to determine ruminal degradation characteristics and intestinal digestion of crude protein (CP) in 4 lactation rumen cannulated and 4 lactating intestinal cannulated Dutch dairy cows fed 47% hay and 53% concentrate according to Dutch dairy requirements. Measured rumen degradation characteristics were soluble fraction (S), undegradable fraction (U), potentially degradable fraction (D), lag time (T0) and rate of degradation (Kd) of insoluble but degradable fraction. Percentage bypass feed protein (BCP), ruminal microbial protein synthesized based on available nitrogen (N_MP) and that based on available energy (E_MP), true protein supplied to the small intestine (TPSI), truly absorbed BCP (ABCP), absorbed microbial protein (AVP) in the small intestine, endogenous protein losses in the digestion (ENDP), true digested protein in the small intestine (TAP or DVE in Dutch) and degraded protein balance (PDB or OEB in Dutch) were totally evaluated using the new Dutch DVE/OEB System. Pressure toasting decreased (p<0.001) rumen degradability of CP. It reduced S (p<0.05) and Kd (p=0.06), increased D (p<0.05) and U (p<0.01) but did not alter T0 (p>0.05), thus resulting in dramatically increased BCP (p<0.001) with increasing time and temperature from 73.7 (raw) up to 182.5 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). Although rumen microbial protein synthesized based on available energy (E_MP) was reduced, true protein (microbial and bypass feed protein) supplied to the small intestine (TPSI) was increased (p<0.001) from 153.1 (raw) to 247.6 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). Due to digestibility of BCP in the intestine not changing (p>0.05) average 87.8%, the absorbed BCP increased (p<0.001) from 62.3 (raw) to 153.7 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). Therefore DVE value of true digested protein in the small intestine was significantly increased (p<0.001) from 118.9 (raw) to 197.0 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$) and OEB value of degraded protein balance was significantly reduced (p<0.001) from 147.2 (raw) to 63.1 g/kg DM ($136^{\circ}C/15min$). It was concluded that pressure toasting was effective in shifting degradation of CP of lupinus albus from the rumen to small intestine without changing intestinal digestion. Further studies are required on the degradation and digestion of individual amino acids and on the damaging effects of processing on amino acids, especially the first limiting amino acids.

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