Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Studies of Mesothermal Gold Vein Deposits in Metamorphic Rocks of Central Sobaegsan Massif, Korea: Youngdong Area

소백산 육괴 중부 지역의 변성암에서 산출되는 중온형 금광상에 대한 유체 포유물 및 안정동위원소 연구. 영동지역

  • Published : 1999.12.01


Mesothermal gold deposits of the Heungdeok, Daewon and Ilsaeng mines in the Youngdong area occur in fault shear zones in Precambrian metamorphic rocks of central Sobaegsan Massif, Korea, and formed in single stage of massive quartz veins (0.3 to 3 m thick). Ore mineralogy is simple, consisting dominantly of pyrrhotite, sphalerite and galena with subordinate pyrite, chalcopyrite, electrum, tetrahedrite and native bismuth. Fluid inclusion data indicate that hydrothermal mineralization occurred at high temperatures (>240$^{\circ}$ to 400$^{\circ}$C) from $H_{2}O-CO_{2}(-CH_{4})$-NaCI fluids with salinities less than 12 wt. % equiv. NaC!. Fluid inclusions in vein quartz comprise two main types. These are, in decreasing order of abundance, type I (aqueous liquid-rich) and type II (carbonic). Volumetric proportion of the carbonic phase in type II inclusions varies widely in a single quartz grain. Estimated $CH_4$ contents in the carbonic phase of type II inclusions are 2 to 20 mole %. Relationship between homogenization temperature and salinity of fluid inclusions suggests a complex history of fluid evolution, comprising the early fluid's unmixing accompanying $CO_2$ effervescence and later cooling. Estimated pressures of vein filling are at least 2 kbars. The ore mineralization formed from a magmatic fluid with the ${\delta}^{34}S_{{\Sigma}S}$, ${\delta}^{18}O_{water}$ and ${\delta}D_{water}$ values of -2.1 to 2.2$\textperthousand$, 4.7 to 9.3$\textperthousand$ and -63 to -79$\textperthousand$, respectively. This study validates the application of a magmatic model for the genesis of mesothermal gold deposits in Youngdong area.



  1. International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State: Carbon Dioxide Angus, S.;Armstrong, B.;de Reuk, K.M.;Altunin, V.V.;Gadetskii, O.G.;Chapala, G.A.;Rowlinson, J.S.
  2. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. v.57 Revised equation and table for determining the freezing point depression of H₂O-NaCl solutions Bodnar, R.J.
  3. Soviet Geol. & Geophys v.18 Study of the salt composition of solutions in gas-liquid inclusions in minerals by the cryometric method Borisenko, A.S.
  4. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. v.47 Calculation of thermodynamic and geochemical consequences of nonideal mixing in the system H₂O-CO₂-NaCl on phase relations in geologic systems: Equation of state for H₂O-CO₂-NaCl fluids at high pressures and temperatures Bowers, T.S.;Helgeson, H.C.
  5. Desalination v.16 The properties of hydrates of chlorine and carbon dioxide Bozzo, A.T.;Chen, H.S.Kass, J.R.;Barduhn, A.J.
  6. Nature v.321 Carbon isotope evidence for a magmatic origin for Archean gold-quartz vein ore deposits Burrows, D.R.;Wood, P.C.;Spooner, E.T.C.
  7. Mineralog. Assoc. Canada Short course Handb. v.6 Analysis of phase equilibria in C-O-H-S fluid inclusions Burruss, R.C.
  8. Annual Report 85-24, Korea Inst. Energy and Resources A study of Rb-Sr age determinations on the Ryeongnam Massif (Ⅰ): Pyeonghae, Buncheon and Kimcheon granite gneisses Choo, S.H.;Kim, S.J.
  9. Science v.133 Isotopic variations in meteoric waters Craig, H.
  10. Mineralog. assoc. Canada Short Course Handb. v.6 Phase equilibria in aqueous fluid inclusions Crawford, M.L.
  11. Chemisch Ingenieurwesen Technik Verdamptung gleichgewichte and kritiesche curven in den systemen attan/wasser und n-butan/wasser bei hohen drucken Danneil, A.;Todheide, K.;Frank, E.W.
  12. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. v.56 Stability of CO₂-clathrate hydrate+CO₂ liquid+CO₂ Vapor+aqueous KCI-NaCI solutions: Experimental determination and application to salinity estimates of fluid inclusions Diamond, L.W.
  13. Phasengleichgewichte und PVT-daten ternarer mischungen aus wasser, kohlendioxid und natrium chrolid bis 3 kbar und 550 Gehrig, M.
  14. Zeitschr. Neorgan. Khimii v.7 Preparation of sulfur dioxide for isotopic analysis Grinenko, V.A.
  15. Econ. Geol. v.58 Composition of fluid inclusions, Cave-in-Rock fluorite district, Illinois and Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district Hall, W.E.;Friedman, I.
  16. Econ. Geol. v.80 The importance of CO₂on freezing point measurements of fluid inclusions: evidence from active geothermal systems and implications for epithermal ore deposition Hedenquist, J.W.;Henley, R.W.
  17. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. v.45 An empirical solvus for CO₂-H₂O-2.6 wt. % salt Hendel, E.M.;Hollister, L.S.
  18. I'Academie des Sciences Computes Rendus [Paris] v.294 Simulation des equilibres anden phases daus le systeme CO₂-CH₄ en dessous de 50 et de 100bars: Application aux inclusions fluides Heyen, G.;Ramboz, C.;Dubessy, J.
  19. Mineralog. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handb. v.6 Information intrinsically available from fluid inclusions Hollister, L.S.
  20. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. v.40 Phase equilibria in fluid inclusions from the Khtada Lake metamorphic complex Hollister, L.S.;Burruss, R.C.
  21. Mineralog. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handbook v.6 Practical aspects of microthermometry Hollister, L.S.;Crawford, M.L.;Roedder, E.;Burruss, R.C.;Spooner, E.T.C.;Touret, J.
  22. Atlas of Gold deposits in Korea Kim, Y.I.;Lee, K.H.;Kim, D.M.;Choi, G.;Kim, J.W.;Cho, Y.S.
  23. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. v.43 Oxygen isotopic fractionation in the system quartz-albite-anorthite-water Matsuhisa, Y.;Goldsmith, J.R.;Clayton, R.N.
  24. Society of Economic Geologist Newsletter v.33 no.1 North china gold: a product of multiple orogens Miller, L.D.;Goldfarb, R.J.;Nie, F.J.;Hart, C.J.R.;Miller, M.L.;Yang, Y.Q.;Liu, Y.Q.
  25. Economic Geology Monograph v.6 Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of mesothermal lode deposits of the Canadian Cordillera: evidence for ore formation from evolved meteoric water Nesbitt, B.E.;Muehlenbachs, K.
  26. Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits Isotopes of sulfur and carbon Ohmoto, H.;Rye, R.O.;Barnes, H.L.
  27. Mineralog. Assoc. Canada Short Course Handb. v.6 Origin of fluid inclusions and changes that occur after trapping Roedder, E.
  28. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. v.8 Geologic pressure determinations from fluid inclusion studies Roedder, E.;Bodnar, R.J.
  29. Econ. Geol. v.61 The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen isotopic compositions of hydrothermal fluids responsible for the lead-zinc deposits at Providencia, Zacatecas, Mexico Rye, R.O.
  30. Econ. Geol. v.83 Gold-rich mesothermal vein deposits of the Republic of Korea: Geochemical Studies of the Jungwon gold area Shelton, K.L.;So, C.S.;Chang, J.S.
  31. Econ. Geol. v.82 Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of gold and silver bearing hydrothermal vein deposits, Cheonan-Cheongyang-Nonsan mining district, Republic of Korea: Cheonan area So, C.S.;Shelton, K.L.
  32. Econ. Geol. v.82 Fluid inclusions and stable isotope studies of gold-silver-bearing hydrothermal vein deposits, Yeoju mining district, Republic of Korea So, C.S.;Shelton, K.L.
  33. Econ. Geol. v.92 Jurassic mesothermal gold mineralization of the Samhwanghak mine, Youngdong area, Republic of Korea: Constrains on hydrothermal fluid geochemistry So, C.S.;Yun, S.T.
  34. Jour. Min. Pet. Econ. Geol. (Japan) v.83 Geochemical studies on Au-Ag hydrothermal vein deposits, Republic of Korea: Jinan-Jeongeup mineralized area So, C.S.;Chi, S.J.;Choi, S.H.
  35. Jour. Korea Inst. Mining Geol. v.22 Geochemical studies of hydrothermal gold deposits, Republic of Korea: Yangpyeong-Weonju area So, C.S.;Choi, S.H.;Lee, K.Y.;Shelton, K.L.
  36. Jour. Geol. Soc. Korea v.25 Geochemical studies of hydrothermal gold-silver deposits, Republic of Korea: Yangdong mining district So, C.S.;Yun, S.T.;Chi, S.J.
  37. Mineral. Deposita v.30 Mesothermal gold vein mineralization of the Samdong mine, Republic of Korea: A geochemical and fluid inclusion study So, C.S.;Yun, S.T.;Shelton, K.L.
  38. Brazil Gold '91 The magmatic model for the origin of Archean Au-quartz vein ore system: an assessment of the evidence Spooner, E.T.C.;Ladeira, E.A.(ed.)
  39. Am. Jour. Sci. v.263 The solubility of carbon dioxide in NaCl solutions at high temperatures and pressures Takenouchi, S.;Kennedy, G.C.
  40. Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits Oxygen and hydrogen isotope relationships in hydrothermal mineral deposits Taylor, H.P.Jr.
  41. Gold metallogeny in the Sino-Korean platform Trumbull, R.B.;Morteani, G.;Li, Z.L.;Bai, H.S.
  42. Mineralium Deposita v.34 Fluid inclusion microthermometry and the P-T evolution of gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids in the Niuxinshan gold deposit, eastern Hebei province, NE China Yao, Y.;Morteani, G.;Trumbull, R.B.
  43. Gold-silver mineralizations on the Mooju-Youngdong mine district, Korea: a comparative geochemical study based on mineralogical, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope systematics Yun, S.T.
  44. Ore Geology Reviews v.14 Regional geologic setting and metallogenesis of central Inner Mongolia, China: Guides for exploration of mesothermal gold deposits Zhang, H.T.;So, C.S.;Yun, S.T.