Processing Effects of Feeds in Swine - Review -

  • Chae, B.J. (Dept. of Feed Science & Technology, College of Animal Agriculture, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Han, In K. (Dept. of Animal Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 1998.10.01


Processing is generally employed to alter the physical and chemical properties of feeds used in pig diets, using hammer/roller mills, pellet mills and extruders/expanders. The reported optimum particle sizes of corn are approximately $500{\mu}m$, $500-700{\mu}m$, $400-600{\mu}m$, for nursery, growing-finishing, and breeder pigs respectively. Optimum particle size of grains are affected by diet complexity. There was a trend towards reducing particle size in order to increase ADG in pigs fed a simple diet, though such was not the case for pigs fed a complex diet. Uniformity of particle size also affects the nutritional values of swine feeds. Uniform particle sizes would consistently give greater nutrient digestibilities. In terms of pellet quality, it is reported that a higher incidence of fmes in pelleted feeds has a direct correlation with poorer feed conversion ratio in pigs. Particle and pellet sizes are also very important for pelleting in terms of grinding, digestibility, stomach ulceration and pellet durability. A particle size of $600{\mu}m$, or slightly less, seemed optimal for com in fmishing pigs, and the 5/32 in. diameter pellets supported the best efficiencies of gain during nursery and finishing phases. Extruder and/or expander processes would allow the feed industry an increased flexibility to utilize a wider spectrum of feed ingredients, and improve pellet quality of finished feeds. It would appear that extruded or expanded diets containing highly digestible ingredients have little effect on the growth performance of pigs, and the feeding values of the feeds over pelleted diets were not improved as pigs grew. The extruder or expander is much more effective than a pelletizer in salmonella control. Gastric ulcerations and/or keratinizations were consistently reported in pigs fed mash and processed diets containing finely ground grains, whereas carcass quality was not affected by diet processing methods such as pelleting, extruding or expanding. In corn- or sorghum-based diets, the electrical energy consumption is 4-5 times higher in the expanding than in the pelleting process. But the expander's processing cost was half of that shown by an extruder. Finally, the decision of which feed processing technology to adopt would depend on the processing cost, and any potential improvement in growth performance and digestibilities of nutrients should offset the increased operating and capital costs related to the extruder/expander technology over mash or pelleting processes in pigs.



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