Seasonal Changes in Colonization and Spore Density of Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae in Citrus Groves

감귤뿌리에서의 Arbuscular-Mycorrhizae 형성과 감귤원 토양중 포자밀도의 계절적 변화

  • Published : 1998.06.30

Abstract

In four citrus grow of Satsuma mandarin (rootstock of trifoliate orange) including two grove of organical management and two groves of conventional management, spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi were identified and seasonal changes in spore density in soils and AM colonization of citrus roots were investigated. AM colonization in weeds found in the groves were also examined. Three species of Glomus (G.deserticola, G. vesiculiferum, G. rubiforme ) and one unknown species of Acaulospora were observed in all of the groves. Annual mean density of AM fungal spores were in the range of 10,000${\sim}$40,000 per 100g soil with more spores in the organically-managed groves. The least spores were observed in December in all groves, and the most spores in April in the organically-managed groves while in February or April in the conventionally- managed. Annual mean AM colonization more 27% of citrus root were observed in the organically-managed with the high peaks in April and October and the minimum in August, while mean colonization less than 15% in the conventionally-managed with the peak in February and the minimum in different times depending on groves and years. AM colonization corresponded to a sigmoidal curve consisting of a laf phase during winter and a subsequent increase in spring, then succeeded by a maximum, and then a decrease at the end of vegetation. Fungal spore density and AM colonization showed a parallel pattern during the sample period. The seasonality appeared to be related more to the phenology of the plant than to the soil factors. Generally more spore density and AM colonization were found in organically managed groves. AM colonization was not correlated with available P and organic matter content in soil in this field investigation. Among sixteen weed species found in the groves, Astrogalus sinicus of Leguminosae, Portulaca oleracea of Portulacaceae showed high colonization in all groves and they can be considered as a source of inoculumn and host plants for propagation of AM fungi.

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