Differential Expression of Xenobiotic-Matabolizing Enzymes by Benzylisothiazole in Association with Hepatotoxicity: Effects on Rat Hepatic Epoxide Hydrolase, Glutathione S-Transferases and Cytochrome P450s

  • Published : 1998.09.01

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that the heterocycles including thiazoles are efficacious in inducing phase phase II metabolizing enzyme as well as certain cytochrome P450s and that the inductin of these matabolizing enzymes by the heterocyclic agents is highly associated with their hepatotoxicity. In the present study, the effects of benzylisothiazole (BIT), which has a isothiazole moiety, on the expression of microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH), major glutathione S-transerases and cytochrome P450s were studied in the rat liver in association with its hepatotoxicity. Treatment of rats with BIT(1.17 mmol/kg, 1~3d) resulted in substantial increases in the mEH. rGSTA2, rGSTA2, rGSTM1 and rGSTM2 mRNA levels, whereas rGSTA3 and rGSTA5 mRNA levels were increased to much lesser extents. A time-course study showed that the mRNA levels of mEH and rGSTs were greater at 24hr after treatment than those after 3 days of consecutive treatment. Relative changes in mEH and rGST mRNA levels were consistent with those in the proteins, as assessed by Western immunoblot analysis. Hepatic cytochrom P450 levels were monitored after BIT treatment under the assumption that metabolic activation of BIT may affect expression of the enzymes in conjunction with hepatotoxicity. Immunoblot analysis revealed that cytochrome P450 2B1/2 were 3-to 4-fold induced in rats teatd with BIT(1.17 mmol/kg/day.3days), whereas P450 1A2, 2C11 and 3A1/2 levels were decreased to 20~30% of those in unteatd rats. P450 2E1 was only slightly decreased by BIT. Thus, the levels of several cytochrome P450s were suppressed by BIT treatment. Rats treated with BIT at the dose of 1.17mmol/kg for 3 days exhibited extensive multifocal nodular necrosis with moderate to extensive diffuse liver cell degeneration. No notable toxicity was observed in the kidney. These results showed that BIT induces mEH and rGSTs in the liver with increases in the mRNA levels, whereas the agent significantly decreased major cytochrome P450s. The changes in the detoxifying enzymes might be associated with the necrotic liver after consecutive treatment.