- Volume 12 Issue 1
Nowadays, there are increasing demands of golf courses and it is necessary to make more golf courses than the present. To do this, we need to improve the environmental problems with the regional inhabitants, and it is said that the first thing to be considered in developing any golf course in Korea is to preserve the environment. In this context, the purpose of this study is to set forth several design factors to lessen the negative impacts which are accompanied with the development of golf courses. 1. The present conditions of golf courses in Korea Many new golf courses have come into being, particularly since the late 1980s, and now, in the year of 1997, over one hundred of golf courses are doing their business, yet the number of golf course is still less than required. So far, over a half of them have been made in the vicinity of Seoul on account of various reasons, and this has adversely affected on our natural environment. This unreasonable development of golf courses has caused serious water pollution, landslides and the other problems. Also, the topography of Korea is not good for golf courses. Although the demands of golf courses are increasing, the suitable sites for them are very limited, and therefore it is sometimes unavoidable to make golf courses on steep hills. Consequently, in designing golf courses in Korea, the most important thing is the balance between natural environment and artificial environment. 2.Eco-friendly golf course design factors 1) The concept of eco-friendly golf courses Ecologically sustainable and sound golf courses which are made by eco-friendly approaches 2)Basic conditions of eco-friendly golf courses (1)The most suitable sites (2) Conservation of existing ground as much as possible (3)Proper use of agricultural chemicals which have great impacts on the environment (4) Reasonable use of fertilizers (5) Developing a specialized fertilizer only for grass (6) Adaptation of organic agriculture (7) Improvement of grass sorts (8) Establishing reservoirs for purifying the water from golf courses 3) Eco-friendly golf courses (1) Location-Enough area /Gentle slope/Winding ground/Including lakes or streams /Not crossing wind's main direction Facing south or southeast /Suitable soIl for grass /Good drainage /Low level of underground water (2)Course layout and design -Consideration about existing contours as much as possible -Adaptation of Scotish design trend -Various holes' configuration -Consideration toward surrounding landscapes -Reducing grass areas -Giving buffer zones -Adapting computer methods in the process of site analysis and design (3) Eco-friendly considerations in constructing and managing golf courses -Protection of wildlife -Reuse of existing forests and preservation of topsoil -Renovation of old-fashioned courses -Reducing grass areas -Purification of water -Standization of management -Strict regulations against chemicals -Recycling organic materials -Through separation of the water inside golf courses and out of bounds -Getting proper construction works done in a due time 4.Eco-friendly considerations from a viewpoint of cultural environment 1) Well-matched landscape design and events planning 2) Implement of identifications and awarding systerns 3)Acknowledgement of superintendents' qualitications in the maintenance of golf courses 4)Increasing public golf courses and keeping good relationships with the neighbors near golf courses Key words: Pro-environmental development, Golf course.