Pulmonary and Cutaneous Evaporative Water Losses in Sahiwal and Sahiwal × Holstein Cattle During Solar Exposure

  • Aggarwal, Anjuli (National Dairy Research Institute) ;
  • Upadhyay, R.C. (National Dairy Research Institute)
  • Received : 1996.06.15
  • Accepted : 1996.10.15
  • Published : 1997.06.01


In order to assess the effect of solar exposure on pulmonary functions and evaporative losses from skin and pulmonary surfaces, in six healthy Sahiwal (S) and six Sahiwal ${\times}$ Holstein ($S{\times}H$) cattle were exposed to direct sun during summer. Breed differences were observed during exposure. Increase in sweating rate was higher in crossbreds (222%) than in Sahiwal (125%). Pre-exposure (ambient temperature, $32.6{\pm}0.85^\circ}C$, solar radiation, $0.9cal\;cm^{-2}min^{-1}$) evaporative loss from skin accounted for about 90% of the losses and remaining losses were contributed by pulmonary surfaces in Sahiwal. The contribution of evaporation through skin increased to 92% (ambient temperature $39.4{\pm}0.68^\circ}C$, solar radiation, $1.35cal\;cm^{-2}min^{-1}$). In crossbreds 80% of the evaporative losses were through skin before exposure which increased to 87% after exposure to solar radiations. Rectal temperature increase was higher in crossbreds ($1.5^{\circ}C$) than in Sahiwal ($0.8^{\circ}C$). With the increase in pulmonary evaporative losses, respiratory frequency increased to 2 fold in Sahiwal and pulmonary ventilation increased 1.6 times the resting value in Sahiwal due to solar exposure. In $S{\times}H$ crossbreds the respiratory frequency increased 3.5 times and pulmonary ventilation increased only to 1.8 times due to decrease in tidal volume. There was about 2 fold increase in alveolar ventilation in both the breeds, the increase in dead space ventilation was more in crossbreds than in Sahiwal. Behavioral symptoms exhibited by animals after exposure were profuse salivation, open mouth panting, tongue protrusion and general restlessness.


Pulmonary Junctions;Sweating Rate;Pulmonary Evaporative Loss;Solar Exposure;Sahiwal;Sahiwal${\times}$Holstein

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