Inhibitors of Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis from Galla rhois

  • Kim, Hyo-Jin (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung) ;
  • Jang, Dong-Il (Pacific R&D Center) ;
  • Park, Sang-Won (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Catholic University of Taegu-Hyosung)
  • Published : 1997.12.01


Previously, a 50% aqueous methanol extract of Galla rhois was shown to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibition activity with an {TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}(the concentration causing 50% inhibition of tyrosinase activity) of 0.2mg/ml of 205 crude drug extracts. To isolate tyrosinase inhibitors, the methanol extract was evaporated to a small volume in vacuo, and then partitioned stepwise with benzene and ethyl acetate(EtOAc). the EtOAc fraction was solubilized in 10% MeOH solution, and then fractionated successively by Diaion HP-20 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. Three phenolic compounds were isolated, and characterized as gallic acid(GA), methyl gallate(MG) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-$\beta$-D-glucose(PGG) by UV, IR, {TEX}${1}^H${/TEX}-&{TEX}${13}^C${/TEX}-NMR, and FAB-MS spectroscopy, PGG({TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}=50$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) showed a considerable inhibitory effect against mushroom tyrosinase, while GA({TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}=1.6mg/ml) and MG({TEX}$IC_{50}${/TEX}=234$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml) did not show an appreciable effect. Meanwhile, MG inhibited greatly melanogenesis in a murine melanocyte cell line, Mel-Ab. MG and PGG showed typical noncompetitive inhibition patterns against mushroom tyrosinase. These results suggest that PGG and MG may be potentially useful as either anti-browning or anti-melanogenic agents in foods and cosmetics.