Screening and Identification of the Yeasts for Orange Wine and Their Citric Acid Decomposition

밀감양조주 생산용 효모의 선별, 동정 및 Citric Acid 분해

  • Ko, Young-Hwan (Department of Food Engineering, Cheju National University) ;
  • Kim, Jae-Ha (Department of Food Engineering, Cheju National University) ;
  • Koh, Jeong-Sam (Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Cheju National University) ;
  • Kim, Chang-Jin (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology)
  • 고영환 (제주대학교 공과대학 식품공학과) ;
  • 김재하 (제주대학교 공과대학 식품공학과) ;
  • 고정삼 (제주대학교 농과대학 농화학과) ;
  • 김창진 (생명공학연구소)
  • Published : 1997.06.01


Yeast strains useful for the production of wine using mandarine orange, Citrus unshiu, as a main substrate were screened, and their primary ability to decompose citric acid that affects directly wine quality was investigated. Total eleven strains were selected for brewing orange wine. Five wild strains were from soil-based collections and identified: four of them were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of them was S. ellipsoideus. The rest of six strains were from among eighteen laboratory strains: three of them were S. cerevisiae, and the other three were S. coreanus, S. uvarum, and S. sake. Two strains of S. cerevisiae out of these selections were chosen and their decomposition of citric acid was investigated. Citric acid was not utilized as sole carbon source for cellular growth. However, when both citric acid and glucose were added together as carbon sources, decrease of citric acid concentration was observed after incubation. Shaking incubation was more effective for the reduction of citric acid than standing incubation. Utilization of citric acid did not contribute to the increase of ethanol concentration during fermentation. On the other hand, it appeared that citric acid caused partial inhibition of cellular growth of the yeasts.

제주산 온주밀감(Citrus unshiu)을 이용한 양조주를 제조하는데 적합한 효모를 선별하고, 밀감양조주의 품질에 직접적으로 연관된 효모의 citric acid 분해능에 대해서 기초조사를 실시하였다. 밀감양조주용으로 활용가능하다고 판단된 균주는 모두 11주이었다. 제주지역의 토양을 중심으로 5개의 효모균주를 분리, 선별하였는데, 그중 4개 주는 Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 나머지 1개 주는 S. ellipsoideus로 동정되었다. 한편 분양 균주 18주 중에서 선별된 균주는 6개 주로, S. cerevisiae 계통의 3개 주와 S. coreanus, S. uvarum, S. sake 각각 1개 주었다. 이중에서 S. cerevisiae 2개 균주의 citric acid 분해능을 조사하였다. Citric acid는 효모의 유일한 탄소원으로는 이용될 수 없었으나, citric acid가 glucose와 함께 탄소원으로 사용되었을 때, 배양액 중의 citric acid 농도는 감소하였으며, 정치배양 보다 진탕배양하였을 때 더 많이 감소하였다. 효모에 의한 citric acid의 이용은 ethanol 농도를 증가시키지 못하였으며, 오히려 citric acid는 효모의 생육을 부분적으로 저해하였다.