Environmental Geochemistry of Atmospheric Mercury: Its Backgriound Concentrations and Exchange Across the Air-Surface Interface

대기수은의 환경지화학: 배경농도측정 및 대기-지표면간의 교환작용

  • 김기현 (상지대학교 환경과학연구소)
  • Published : 1996.06.01

Abstract

Mercury (Hg) is ubiquitous throughout the earth's atmosphere. The uniqueness of its atmospheric geochemistry is well-known with the high environmental mobility and relatively long atmospheric residence time (c.a., 1 year) associated with its high chemical stability. Despite a growing recognition of the environmental significance of its global cycling, the prexisting Korean database for atmospheric Hg is extremely rare and confined to a number of concentration measurements conducted under relatively polluted urban atmospheric environments. To help activate the research on this suvject, an in-depth analysis on the current development in the measurements of atmospheric mercury and the associated fluxes has been made using the most using the most updated data ests reported worldwide. As a first step toward this purpose, the most reliable techniques commonly employed in the measurements of its concentration in the background atmosphere are introduced in combination with the flux measurement techniques over soil surface such as: dynamic enclosure (or field flux chamber) method and field micrometeorological method. Then the results derived using these measurement techniques are discussed and interpreted with an emphasis on its mobilization across the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere interface. A unmber of factors including air/soil temperature, soil chemical composition, soil water content, and barometric pressure are found out to be influential to the rate and amount of such exchange processes. Although absolute magnitude of such exchange processes is insignificant relative to that of the major component like the oceanic environment, this exchange process is thought to be the the predominant natural pathway for both the mobilization and redistribution of atmospheric Hg on a local or regional scale.

Keywords

References

  1. Water. Air and Soil Pollution v.80 Foliar exchange of mercury vapor: Evidence for a compensation point Hanson,P.J.;S.E.Lindberg;T.A.Tabberer;J.G.Owens;K.H.Kim
  2. Chemosphere v.13 An instrumental analytical technique for vapor-phase mercury species in air Schroeder,W.H.;R.A.Jackson
  3. J. Geophys. Res v.98 Seasonal distribution of methane flux in a Minnesota peatland measured by eddy correlation Shurpali,N.J.;S.B.Verma;R.J.Clement
  4. Science v.231 Sea-air partitioning of mercury in the equatorial Pacific Ocean Kim,J.P.;W.F.Fitzgerald
  5. 한국대기보전학회지 v.5 도시대기의 수은동태와 환경인자에 관한 연구 김민영;박상현;박성배
  6. Heavy Metals in the Environment v.1 Application of micrometeorological methods to measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils Kim,K.H.;S.E.Lindberg;P.J.Hanson;T.P.Meyers;J.G.Owens;Nriagu,J.O.(ed.);Allan,R.J.(ed.)
  7. Atmos. Environ Use of the modified Bowen Ratio technique to measure fluxes of trace gases Meyers,T.P.;M.E.Hall;S.E.Lindberg;K.H.Kim
  8. Water. Air and Soil Pollut v.48 Cycling of Mercury Between Water, Air, and Soil Compartments of the Environment Schroeder,W.H.;J.Munthe;O.Lindqbist
  9. Water. Air and Soil Pollut The distribution and behavior of lead in urban and nonurban atmospheres of Won Ju city, Korea Kim,K.H.;D.W.Song
  10. Chemical Oceanography Series v.10 Atmospheric and oceanic cycling of mercury Fitzgerald,W.F.;Riley,J.P.(ed.);Chester,R.(ed.)
  11. Atmos. Environ v.29 no.2 Micrometeorological measurements of mercury vapor fluxes over background forest soils in eastern Tennessee Kim,K.H.;S.E.Lindberg;T.P.Meyers
  12. Water. Air and Soil Pollut v.80 Design and initial tests of a dynamic enclosure chamber for measurements of vapor-phase mercury fluxes over soils Kim,K.H.;S.E.Lindberg
  13. Environ. Science and Tech v.29 no.1 A micrometeorological gradient approach for quantifying air/surface exchange of mercury vapor: Tests over contaminated soils. Lindberg,S.E.;K.H.Kim;T.P.Meyers;J.G.Owens
  14. Acta v.58 Geochimica Cosmochim Mason,R.P.;W.F.Fitzgerald;F.M.Morel
  15. J. of Geophys. Res v.92 no.14 Carbon disulfide in seawater and the marine atmosphere over the North Atlantic Kim,K.H.;M.O.Andreae
  16. Joural of Geophys. Res v.99 High-precision measurements of mercury vapor in air: Design of a six-port-manifold mass flow controller system and evaluation of mass flow errors at atmospheric pressure Kim,K.H.;S.E.Lindberg
  17. Journal of Soil Contamination v.4 Mercury translocation in and evaporation from soil.Ⅱ. Evaporation of mercury from podzolized soil profiles treated with HgCl₂and CH3HgCl Schluter,K.;H.M.Seip;J.Alstad
  18. J. Environ. Qual v.8 Atmospheric emission and plant uptake of mercury from agricultural soils near the Almaden Mercury Mine Lindberg,S.E.;D.R.Jackson;J.W.Huckabee;S.A.;Janzen,M.J.Levin;J.R.Lund
  19. Metal Ions in Biological systems v.34 Biogeochemistry of mercury in the air-soil-plant system Kim,K.H.;J.H.Paul;M.Barnett;S.E.Lindberg;Siegel,H.(ed.)
  20. Applied Microbiology v.29 no.2 Effects of mercuric chloride growth and morphology of selected stains of mercury-resistant bacteria Vaituzis,Z.;J.D.Neslon;L.W.Wan;R.R.Colwell
  21. J. Geophys. Res v.92 Simultaneous field measurements of biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide Anderson,I.C.;J.S.Levine
  22. Tellus v.43B Vertical fluxes of volatile mercury over forest soil and lake surfaces in Sweden Xiao,Z.F.;J.Munthe;W.H.Schroeder;O.Lindqvist
  23. Tellus v.37B Atmospheric Mercury-A review Lindqvist,O.;H.Rodhe
  24. Anal. Chem v.51 Subnanogram detemination of mercury by two-stage gold amalgamation and gas phase detection applied to atmospheric analysis Fitzgerald,W.F.;G.A.Gill
  25. Wat. Air, Soil Pollut v.17 Total airborne Hg and its possible origin Brosset,C.
  26. 한국환경위생학회지 v.13 환경대기중 수은의 분포와 동태에 관한 연구(Ⅰ) 김민영;강희곤;박성배
  27. Marine Chemistry v.40 Carbon disulfide in the estuarine, coastal and oceanic environments Kim,K.H.;M.O.Andreae
  28. Water. Air and Soil Pollut v.40 Temperature determinations of plant-soil-air mercury relationship Siegel,S.M.;B.Z.Siegel
  29. Journal of Environ v.A31 no.4 Heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils: Measurements in the proximity of abandoned mine land sites (AMLS) Kim,K.H.;D.Y.Kim
  30. J. Atmos. Chem v.5 The measurement of natural sulfur emissions from soils and vegetation: three sites in the eastern United States revisited Goldan,P.D.;W.C.Kuster;D.L.Albritton;F.C.Fehsenfeld
  31. Journal of Environ Preliminary measurements of atmospheric mercury in mountainous regions of Korea Kim,K.H.;M.Y.Kim
  32. Proceedings Fifth International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment v.1 Mercury in rain and throughfall in a tropical rain forest Lindberg,S.E.;R.C.Harris
  33. Anal. Chem v.53 no.2 Reduction of ionic species by fulvic-acid Skogerboe,R.K.;S.A.Wilson
  34. Water. Air and Soil Pollution v.80 Is mercury increasing in the atmosphere? The need for an atmospheric mercury network (AMNET) Fitzgerald,W.F.
  35. Water. Air and Soil Pollut v.80 The precise measurement of concentration gradients of mercury in air over soils: A review of past and recent measurements Lindberg,S.E.;K.H.Kim;J.Munthe