Geochemistry and Genesis of Hydrothermal Cu Deposits in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea : Hwacheon-ri Mineralized Area

경상분지내 열수동광상의 지화학 및 성인연구 : 화천리지역 광화대

  • So, Chil-Sup (Dept. of Earth and Environment Sciences, Korea Univ.) ;
  • Choi, Sang-Hoon (Center for Mineral Resources Research, Korea Univ.) ;
  • Yun, Seong-Taek (Department of Mineral and Energy Resources Engineering, Semyung University)
  • Received : 1995.07.26
  • Published : 1995.08.31


The Hwacheon-ri mineralized area is located within the Cretaceous Gyeongsang Basin of the Korean peninsula. The mineralized area includes the Hwacheon, Daeweon, Kuryong and Cheongryong mines. Each of these mines occurs along copper-bearing hydrothermal quartz veins that crosscut late Cretaceous volcanic rocks, although some disseminated ores in host rocks also exist locally. Mineralization can be separated into three distinct stages (I, II, and III) which developed along preexisting fracture zones. Stage I is ore-bearing, whereas stages II and III are barren. The main phase of ore mineralization, stage I, can be classified into three substages (Ia, Ib and Ic) based on ore mineral assemblages and textures. Substage Ia is characterized by pyrite-arsenopyrite-molybdenite-pyrrhotite assemblage and is most common at the Hwacheon deposit. Substage Ib is represented by main precipitation of Cu, Zn, and Pb minerals. Substage Ic is characteristic of hematite occurrence and is shown only at the Kuryong and Cheongryong deposits. Some differences in the ore mineralization at each mine in the area suggest that the evolution of hydrothermal fluids in the area varied in space (both vertically and horizontally) with respect to igneous rocks relating the ore mineralization. Fluid inclusion data show that stage I ore mineralization mainly occurred at temperatures between ${\approx}350^{\circ}$ and ${\approx}200^{\circ}C$ from fluids with salinities between 9.2 and 0.5 wt.% eq. NaCl. In the waning period of substage Ia, the high temperature and salinity fluid gave way to progressively cooler, more dilute fluids of later substage Ib and Ic (down to $200^{\circ}C$, 0 wt.% NaCl). There is a systematic decrease in the calculated ${\delta}^{18}O_{H2O}$ values with paragenetic time in the Hwacheon-ri hydrothermal system from values of ${\approx}2.7$‰ for substage Ia, through ${\approx}-2.8$‰ for substage Ib, to ${\approx}-9.9$‰ for substage Ic. The ${\delta}D$ values of fluid inclusion water also decrease with decreasing temperature (except for the Daeweon deposit) from -62‰ (substage Ia) to -80‰ (substage Ic and stage III). These trends are interpreted to indicate the progressive cooler, more oxidizing unexchanged meteoric water inundation of an initial hydrothermal system which is composed of highly exchanged meteoric water. Equilibrium thermodynamic interpretation of the mineral assemblages with the variation in amounts of chalcopyrite through the paragenetic time, and the evolution of the Hwacheon-ri hydrothermal fluids indicate that the solubility of copper chloride complexes in the hydrothermal system was mainly controlled by the variation of temperature and $fo_2$ conditions.



Supported by : Korea Research Foundation