- Volume 4 Issue 4
The study of flocculation kinetics is of fundamental interest in the field of water treatment, because rational study of the factors affecting the coagulation process should be based on the rate of particle growth. The effect of sulfate on flocculation kinetics were examined using ferric nitrate as a coagulant to coagulate kaolin clay in water under several experimental conditions. Both the particle size distribution data obtained from the AIA and the on-line measurement of turbidity fluctuation by the PDA were used to measure flocculation kinetics. Results show that sulfate ion added to the kaolin suspension played an important role in the flocculation process, not only improving flocculation kinetics at more acidic pH levels but also changing surface charge of particles. The kinetics of flocculation were improved mainly by the enhanced rate and extent of Fe(III) precipitation attributed to the addition of sulfate, and thereby, better interparticle collision frequency, but little by the charge reductions resulting from the sulfate addition. The increase in sulfate concentration beyond
- Water quality and treatment(3rd. ed.) American Water Works Association
- Jour. Colloid Inter. Sci. v.64 no.3 Hydrolysis-precipitation studies of aluminum(Ⅲ) solutions. 3. The role of the sulfate ion De Hek,H.;R.J.Stol;P.L. De Bruyn
- Colloids and Surfaces v.60 The influence of a smecite clay on the hydrolysis of iron(Ⅲ) Thompson,D.W.;N.M.Tahir
- Jour. Envir. Sci. Soc. v.4 no.2 Effects of temperature on flocculation kinetics using Fe(Ⅲ) coagulant in water treatment Kang,L.S.
- Surface composition modeling, hydrous ferric oxide Dzombak,D.A.;F.M.M.Morel
- Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc. v.25 no.3 Effect of sulfate and other ions in coagulation with Aluminum(Ⅲ) Hanna,G.P.;A.J.Rubin
- Jour. Colloid Inter. Sci. v.105 no.2 Turbidity fluctuations in flowing suspensions Gregory,J.
- Jour. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. v.41 The influence of sulfate ions on the formation of iron(Ⅲ) oxides Dousma,J.;D. den Ottelander;P.L. de Bruyn
- Jour. Am. Water Works Assoc. v.56 no.1 Chemical aspects of coagulation Stumm,W.;J.J.Morgan
- Water Research v.17 Effect of solution chemistry on coagulation with hydrolyzed Al(Ⅲ) Letterman,R.D.;S.G.Vanderbrook
- Chemical Review v.84 Hydrolysis of inorganic iron(Ⅲ) salts Flynn,C.M.