Balancing Conservation and Development in National Parks of Japan: Success or Failure\ulcorner

일본의 국립공원 보호와 개발의 조화 : 성공 또는 실패\ulcorner

  • 우형택
  • Published : 1995.10.01

Abstract

This paper evaluates the historical development of national park policy and administration in Japan from the perspective of achieving sustainable development in nationally important ecological areas. Contrary to the widely held belief, the national park system in Japan has been unsuccessful in balancing conservation and development. The fundamental reasons for its failure are as follows: the Japan's national park system has been largely founded and developed based on economic grounds and held sway by economic development policy; the policy and administrative coordination between government units concerning conservation and development has not been carried out; public participation and environmental groups' involvement in the decision making have been extremely limited; national parks have been perceived in the public image not as distinctive national heritage but as finest and popular tourist sites; and the dominant interest of tourism and recreational development has prevailed over conservation interest. Japan's unsuccessful experience and lessons imply that there is urgent need to drastically reform our national park system, largely founded on the Japanese model, in order to save our last national environmental heritage.

Keywords

National park system;important ecological area;conservation;development;policy;adminstration;historical evaluation;Japan

References

  1. Kokuritsu Koen v.343 Nihon ni okeru kokkai shijo no kokuritsu koen setchi undo no genten(The origin of national park movement in the history of Japanese Diet) Kaku,H.
  2. Kokuritsu Koen v.270 Shizen hogo zorei ichiran (Table of nature conservation ordinances) Kankyocho Shizen Hogokyoku(Nature Conservation Bureau, Environment Agency)
  3. Rizoto chiiki seibi(Resort development) Kokyo Toshi Zanaru(Public Investment Journal)
  4. Nihon no kokuritsu koen(National parks of Japan) Tamura,T.
  5. Shizen hogo no ayumi(The progress of nature conservation administration) Shusenkara kankyocho setchi made no shizen koen(The progress of natural parks from the end of the World War Ⅱ to the cration of the Environment Agency) Tsuchiya,T.;Kankyocho Shizen Hogokyoku(ed.)
  6. World conservation strategy: living resource conservation for sustainable development IUCN(International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)
  7. Japanese prefectures and policymaking Reed,S.R.
  8. The Richey report on national parks in Japan Richey,C.A.
  9. Shiseki Meisho Tennenkinenbutsu v.10 no.4 Shiseki meisho tennenkinenbutsu hozonho kaistsu Ⅵ(The interpretation of the Law for the Preservation of Historic, Scenic, and Natural Monuments) Uchida,E.
  10. Kanko 41 v.7 no.5 Shizen hogo dantai no mita shizen hakai no genjo(The trend of nature destruction viewed by nature conservation groups) Asahi Shinbunsha Naiseibu
  11. Kanko v.4 no.8 Kanko doro to shizen hogo gyosei(Scenic highways and nature conservation adminstration) Kihara,K.
  12. Kokuritsu Koen v.455 Sogo hoyo chiiki seibi ho ni tsuite(About the comprehensive resort development law) Maeda,M.
  13. Hyodae Nonmoongip v.45 Historical assessment of national park management in England and Wales: balancing conservation and development Woo,H.T.
  14. Kanko gyosei hyakunen to kanko seisaku shingikai sanzunen no ayumi(The 100 years of tourism administration and the 30 year progress of the tourism policy council) Sorifu(Prime Minister's Office)
  15. Zoen gairon(An introduction to landscape architecture) Tamura,T.
  16. Zoengaku hanron(An introduction to landscape architecture study) Uehara,K.
  17. Kankyo Zoho Kagaku v.14 no.1 Kogai mondai no 40 nenshi(The 40 year history of pollution problems) Kawana,H.
  18. Kanryo: sono fushoku no kozo(The bureaucracy : corruption structure) Mainichi Shinbun Shakaibu(Mainichi Newspaper Social Affair Division)
  19. Shizen hogo gyosei no ayumi(The progress of nature conservation administration) Shizen koen seido no sosetsu(The establishment of the natural park system) Ikenouye,O.;Kankyocho Shizen Hogokyoku(ed.)
  20. Shizen hogo gyosei no ayumi(The progress of nature conservation administration) Kankyocho no setchi kara(After the creation of the Environment Agency) Uno,T.;Kankyocho Shizen Hogokyoku(ed.)
  21. Kokuritsu Koen v.4 no.2 Kokuritsu koen no shimei to hozon no seishin(A mission of national park and a spirit of preservation) Oshima,T.
  22. Nihon no shizen koen(National parks of Japan) Tanaka,M.
  23. Nature conservation administration in Japan NCB;EA(Nature Conservation Bureau, Environment Agency)
  24. National parks, conservation, and development: the role of protected areas in sustaining society McNeely,J.A.(ed.);K.R.Miller(ed.)
  25. Kokuritsu Koen v.438 Fuji-Hakone-Izu kokuritsu koen no gaiyo(A summary of the Fuji-Hakone-Izu national park) Fujino,K.
  26. Tokyo no koen hyakunenshi(The 100 year history of parks in Tokyo) Tokyo-To(Tokyo Metropolitan Government)
  27. Our Common Future WCED(World Commission on Environment and Development)
  28. Gyoseigaku koza 4: gyosei to soshiki(Public administration 4: administration and organization) Soshiki no bunka to koso(Organizational differentiation and struggle) Imamura,T.;K.Tsuji(ed.)
  29. Shizen hogo no tebiki(The handbook of nature conservation) Zenkoku Shizen Hogo Rengo(Japan Union for Nature Conservation)
  30. Jurist v.492 Shizen hakai to kanko kaihatsu(Nature destruction and tourism development) Kihara,K.
  31. Kanko v.251 Sogo hoyo chiiki seibi ho no gaiyo(A summary of the comprehensive resort development law) Kokudocho(National Land Agency)
  32. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin Politics of national parks in Japan Oyadomari,M.
  33. Kankyo Zoho Kagaku v.14 no.1 Shizen hogo mondai no 50 nenshi(The 50 year history of nature conservation problems) Itoga,R.
  34. Kokuritsu Koen v.2 no.10 Kokuritsu koen no seido ni kansuru tokubetsu iincho hokoku yosei(A chair summary of the special committee on the national park system) Tokubetsu Iincho(Chairman of the Special Committee)
  35. Kokuritsu Koen v.243 Kokusetsu daikoen setchi ni kansuru kengi ni tsuite(A proposal for establishing a national grand park) Uno,T.
  36. Kokuritsu Koen v.200 Kokuritsu koen seido no utsurikawari Ⅰ(The change in the national park system) Zadankai(Talk Session)