Spatial Estimation of Point Observed Environmental Variables: A Case Study for Producing Rainfall Acidity Map

점관측 환경 인자의 공간 추정 - 남한 지역의 강우 산도 분포도 작성

  • Published : 1995.12.01

Abstract

The representation of point-observed environmental variables in Geographic Information Systems(GIS) has often been inadequate to meet the need of regional-scale ecological and environmental applications. To create a map of continuous surface that would represent more reliable spatial variations for these applications, I present three spatial estimation methods. Using a secondary variable of the proximity to coast line together with rainfall acidity data collected at the 63 acid rain monitoring stations in Korea, average rainfall acidity map was cteated using co-kriging. For comparison, two other commonly used interpolation methods (inverse distance weighting and kriging) were also applied to rainfall acidity data without reference to the secondary variable. These estimation methods were evaluated by both visual assessments of the output maps and the quantitative comparison of error measures that were obtained from cross validation. The co-kriging method produced a rainfall acidity map that showed noticeable improvement in repoducing the inherent spatial pattern as well as provided lower statistical error as compared to the methods using only the primary variable.

Keywords

References

  1. Applied Geostatistics Isaaks,E.H.;R.M.Srivastava
  2. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers v.30 no.1 Spatial interpolation of penman evapotranspiration Harcum,J.B.;J.C.Loftis,
  3. Spatial Statistics and Digital Image Analysis by National Research Council Geostatical analysis of spatial data Cressie,N.
  4. The American Cartographer v.12 no.1 Small-scale climate maps:a sensitivity analysis of some common assumptions associated with grid-point interpolation and contouring Willmott,C.J.;C.M.Rowe,;W.D.Philpot
  5. Journal of Mathematical Geology v.15 no.5 Estimation of linear combinations and co-kriging Myers,D.E.
  6. Statistics for Spatial Data Cressie,N.
  7. Principles of Geographical Information Systems for Land Resources Assessment. Burrough,P.A.
  8. Geostatistics for Waste Management: a user's manual for the GEOPACK geostatistical software systems. Yates,S.R.;M.V.Yates