CHLOROFORM IN THE AIR OF INDOOR SWIMMING POOLS AND THE OUTDOOR AIR NEAR THE SWIMMING POOLS IN A CITY OF KOREA

국내 한 도시의 실내 수영장 공기 및 수영장 인근의 실외 공기에서의 클로로포름

  • 조완근 (효성여자대학교 자연대학 환경보건학과) ;
  • 황영미 (효성여자대학교 자연대학 환경보건학과)
  • Published : 1994.09.01

Abstract

Chloroform present in the swimming water disinfected with sodium hypochlorite is released to the air of swimming pools. The air chloroform concentrations were measured in two swimming pools A and B which applied both sodium hypochlorite a:d ozone. Thew mean concentrations are 28.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3 and 33.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3in the swimming pools A and B, respectively. On the other hand, the mean water chloroform concentrations in the swimming pools A and B were 23.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l and 19.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l, respectively. The air chloroform concentrations were lower in the swimming Bools A and B than those reported by previous studies abroad employed the swimming pools which applied sodium hypochlorite only for water disinfection. The water chloroform concentrations were also lower in this study than in the previous studies. The relationship between the air and water chloroform concentrations measured in this study was significant with p=0.002 and Rz=0.42. At similar time to the indoor air sampling, outdoor air samples were collected at two sites near each of the swimming Pools A and B. The mean outdoor air chloroform concentrations near the swiminE Pools A and B were 0.41 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3 and 0.16 $\mu\textrm{g}$/m3, respectively. The outdoor air chloroform concentrations measured in this study were equal to or lower than those reported by previous studies abroad. 'rho chloroform dose inhaled for a typical one-hour swim was estimated to be 25.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per person, corresponding to a specific 0.37 $\mu\textrm{g}$/kg body weight for a reference 70 Kg male adult, while the inhalation dose of chloroform from the outdoor air was estimated to be 5.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$ per person per day, corresponding to a specific 0.08 $\mu\textrm{g}$/Kg/day for the same reference male adult.

Keywords

Chloroform;swimming;sodium hypochlorite;inhalation;dose

References

  1. Chloroform IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Some halogenated hydrocarbons. International Agency for Research on Cancer
  2. Risk Analysis v.10 Rotues of chloroform exposure and body burden from showering with chlorinated tap water Jo,W.K.;C.P.Weisel,;P.J.Lioy,
  3. Atm.Environ. v.19 no.10 Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor relationships, and breath levels of toxic air pollutants measured for 355 persons in New Jersey Wallace,L.A.;E.D.Pellizzari,;T.D.Hartwell,;C.M.Sparacino,;R.L.S.Sheldon,;H.Zelon,
  4. J. of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology v.1 no.2 The Los Angeles TEAM study : Personal exposures, indoor-outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of 25 volatile organic compounds Wallace,L.;W.Nelson,;R.Ziegenfus,;E.Pellizzari,;L.Michael,;R.Whitmore,;H.Zelon,;T.Hartwell,;R.Perritt,;D.Westerdahl,
  5. Environ.Sci.Technol. v.25 no.8 Comparison of portable gas chromatographs and passivated canisters for field sampling airborne toxic organic vapors in the United States and the USSR Berkley,R.E.;J.L.Varns,;J.Plell,
  6. Water Research v.15 Distribution and balance of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in the water and air of covered swimming pools using chlorine for water disinfection Lahl,U.;K.Batjer,;J.V.Duszeln,;B.Gabel,;B.Stachel,;W.Thiemann,
  7. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol. v.2 Safety evaluation of toothpaste containing chloroform. I. Long-term studies in mice Roe,F.J.C.;A.K.Palmer,;A.N.Worden,;N.J.Van Abble,
  8. J.Air Waste Manage. Assoc. v.1 Evaluation from urban air pollutants in the southeast Chicago area Summerhays,J.
  9. Fundam.Appl.Toxicol. v.5 Carcinogenicity of chloroform in drinking water to male Osborne-mendel rats and female B6C3F1 mice Jorgenson,;E.F.Meierhenry,;C.J.;Rushbrook,;R.J.Bull,;M.Robinson,
  10. Env.Int. v.8 Monitoring individual exposure Wallace,L.
  11. Risk Analysis v.10 Chloroform exposure and the health risk and body burden from showering with chlorinated tap water Jo,W.K.;C.P.Weisel,;P.J.Lioy,
  12. Env.Research v.35 Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds Wallace,L.A.;E.Pellizzari,;T.Hartwell,;M.Rosenzweig,;M.Erickson,;C.Sparacino,;H.Zelon,
  13. Sci.Total Environ. v.47 Inhalation exposure in the home to volatile organic contaminants of drinking water Andelman,J.B.
  14. Env.Health Persp. v.62 Human exposures to volatile halogenated organic chemicals in indoor and outdoor air Andelman,J.B.
  15. Environ.Sci.Technol. v.22 no.12 Distribution of volatile organic chemicals in outdoor and indoor air Shah,J.J.;Singh,H.B.
  16. Proc.of the EPA/A&WMA International Symposium. Routes of chloroform exposure from showering with chlorinated water Jo,W.K.;C.P.Weisel,;P.J.Lioy,
  17. Ambient water quality criteria for chloroform, EPA 440/5-80-033 U.S.Environmental Protection Agency
  18. Departmant of Chemical Engineering Volatilization of organic groundwater contaminants in a shower environment, Undergraduate Independent Work Weiss,C.F.
  19. Environ.Sci.Technol. v.25 no.11 Methylchloroform and Tetrachloroethylene in southern California, 1987-1990 Hisham,M.W.;D.Grosjean,
  20. Report of the task group on refernce man, International commission on radiological protection papers Syneder,W.S.;M.J.Cook,;E.S.Nasset,;L.R.Karhausen,;G.P.Howells,;I.H.Tipton,
  21. Chemicals in the environment Andelman,J.B.;S.M.Meyers,;L.C.Wilder,
  22. Report on carcinogenesis bioassay of chloroform, National Cancer Institute carcinogenesis bioassay program Bethesda
  23. Arch.Environ.Health v.45 no.3 plasma chloroform concentrations in swimmers using indoor swimming pools Aggazzotti,G.;G.Fantuzzi,;P.L.Tartoni,G.Predieri,
  24. Korean J. of Environ.Sci. in press Water chloroform levels in indoor swimming pools in a city of Korea Jo,W.K.
  25. Environ.Res. v.43 The TEAM study : Personal exposures to toxic substances in air, drinking water, and breath of 400 residents of New Jersey, North Carolina, and North Dakota Wallace,L.A.;E.Pellizzari,;T.Hartwell,;C.Sparacino,;R.Whitmore,;L.Sheldon,;H.Zelon,;R.Perrit,