WATER CHLOROFORM LEVELS IN INDOOR SWIMMING POOLS IN A CITY OF KOREA AND IN A CITY OF NEW JERSEY IN THE UNITED STATES

국내 및 미국 뉴저지주의 수영장 물에서의 클로로포름

  • 조완근 (효성여자대학교 자연대학 환경보건학과)
  • Published : 1994.06.01

Abstract

Chlorinated water in swimming pools contains chloroform at elevated levels compared to chlorinated drinking water Chloroform levels in four indoor swimming pools(swimming pools A, B and C in a city of Korea and swimming pool D in a city of New Jersey in the United States) were examined. The chloroform levels in the water of swimming pool C (city-managed) weve shown to be significantly(p=0.0001) different from those of private swimming pools A and B: the mean chloroform levels in the pools A, B, and C are 22.8, 17.8, and 31.1 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l, respectively. Furthermore, all of these chloroform levels are significantly(P=0.0001) different from those of New Jersey: chloroform concentration of the Korean pools ranged from 10.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$.l to 47.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l with a mean of 23.2 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l, while it ranged from 27 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l to 96$\mu\textrm{g}$/l with a mean of 64.4 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l in the New Jersey pool. The disinfection processes would cause part of this difference since the swimming pools in Korea applied both chlorination and ozonation method, while the swimming pool in New Jersey used chlorination method only. It was implied that swimming parameters inconsistently vary, resulting in fluctuation of and no constant accumulation of chloroform in the water with the change of time for the day. A regression analysis showed no relationships between sampling time and chloroform concentrations for the sampling day in the swimming pools of Korea. A F-test indicated no significant difference of chloroform concentrations in the morning and afternoon samples collected in the swimming pools. Ingestion dose was estimated to be 0.58$\mu\textrm{g}$ from an hour swimming in a city of Korea, taking into accounting an average of 23.2 $\mu\textrm{g}$/l in swimming pools in the city In extreme situation, the ingestion dose was estimated to be 12.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$ from an hour swimming in a city of Korea.

Keywords

References

  1. Chloroform IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans;Some halogenated hydrocarbons International Agency for Research on Cancer
  2. Chemicals in the environment Andelman,J.B.;S.M.Meyers;L.C.Wilder
  3. Water Research v.15 Distribution and balance of volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in the water and air of covered swimming pools using chlorine for water disinfection Lahl,U.;K.Batjer,J.V.;Duszeln;B.Gabel;B.Stachel;W.Thiemann
  4. Am. J. Public Health v.70 no.1 Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water Beech,J.A.;R.Diaz.;C.Ordaz;B.Palomeque
  5. The determination of halogenated chemicals in water by the purge and trap method(Method 502.1) Method 502.1 U.S.Environmental Protection Agency
  6. Environ. Sci. Technol. v.11 no.5 Chlorination reactions of fulvic acids in natural waters Rook,J.J.
  7. Undergraduate Independent Work, Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University Volatilization of organic groundwater contaminants in a shower environment Weiss,C.F.
  8. Arch. Envrion. Health v.45 no.3 plasma chloroform concentrations in swimmers using indoor swimming pools Aggazzotti,G.;G.Fantuzzi;P.L.Tartoni;G.Predieri
  9. J. Am. Wat. Wks. Associ The formation of trihalomethanes Trussel,R.R.;K.Umphres
  10. Amer. Water Assoc. v.66 Determining volatile organics at microgram-per litre levels by gas chromatography Belar,T.A.;J.J.Lichtenberg
  11. Water Research v.20 no.8 Survey of volatile halogenated organics(VHO) in Italy;Levels of VHO in drinking waters surface, waters and swimming pools Aggazzotti,G.;G.Predieri
  12. Water Research v.17 Survey of trihalomethane levels in Rhone-Alps water supplies;Estimates on the formation of chlotoform in wastewater treatment plants and swimming pools Chambon,P.;M.Taveau;M.Morin;R.Chambon;J.Vial
  13. Report of the task group on reference man, International commission on radiological protection papers No.23 Syneder,W.S.;M.J.Cook;E.S.Nasset;L.R.Karhausen;G.P.Howells;I.H.Tipton
  14. Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. v.196 Pulmonary elimination of chloroform and its matabolite in man Fry,B.J.;T.Taylor;D.E.Hathway
  15. Water Res v.14 Determination of trihalomethanes(THM) in water using high efficiency solvent extraction Norin,H.;L.Renberg
  16. Water Treat. Exam. v.23 Formation of haloforms during chlorination of natural waters Rook,J.J.