# HOUSING AND MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN SMALL SCALE FARMS OF EAST JAVA, IN INDONESIA

• Sarwiyono, Sarwiyono (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Brawijaya University) ;
• Djoharjani, T. (Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Brawijaya University) ;
• Ibrahim, M.N.M. (Department of Tropical Animal Production, Agricultural University)
A study on housing and management of dairy cows was conducted in three villages. All activities of husbandry related to the housing and the condition of the cows were observed and farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire. The main type of housing was a tie stall mostly in the back yard area with a gable or shed type roof. Inside the shed the temperature ranged from 17 to $29^{\circ}C$ and the relative humidity ranged from 62 to 73%. Drainage and manure handling was poor which lead to poor cleanliness of the stables and animal skins. The floor space was mostly wide and the roof level was low (less than 2.5 m). The slope of the floor (1-3%) was sufficient, the roughness of the floor was of medium quality. The shape and size of the feed trough was good with a surface of mostly irregular forms. Concentrate was mixed with water and offered in liquid form in pails made from plastic or from parts of rubber car tires. Hoof length was too long which could lead to unstable position and self injury. It is concluded that the housing conditions of dairy cattle need to be improved in order to improve the condition of the animals and the production performance.