Magnetite and Scheelite-Bearing Skarns in Ulsan Mine, Korea

울산 광산의 철-텅그스텐 스카른화작용

  • Received : 1992.11.11
  • Published : 1993.02.28


The Ulsan Fe-W deposit, which can be classified as a calcareous skarn deposit, is represented by ore pipe consisting principally of magnetite and lesser amounts of scheelite with minor sulphides, sulphosaits, arsenides, sulpharsenides, etc. At Ulsan mine, metasomatic processes of skarn growth may be divided broadly into two stages based on the paragenetic sequence of calc-silicate minerals and their chemical composition; early and late skarn stages. Early stage has started with the formation of highly calcic assemblages of wollastonite, diopsidic clinopyroxene and nearly pure grossular, which are followed by the formation of clinopyroxenes with salite to ferrosalite composition and grandite garnets with intermediate composition. Based on these calc-silicate assemblages, the temperatures of early skarn formations have been in the ranges of $550^{\circ}$ to $450^{\circ}$. The calc-silicate assemblages formed during the earlier half period of late skarn stage show the enrichment of notable iron and slight manganese, and the depletion of magnesium; clinopyroxenes are hedenbergitic, and grandite garnets are andraditic. The formation temperatures during this skarn stage are inferred to have been in the range of $430^{\circ}$ to $470^{\circ}C$ at low $X_{CO_2}$ by data from fluid inclusions of late andraditic garnets. The later half period of late skarn stage is characterized by the hydrous alteration of pre-existing minerals and the formation of hydrous silicates. The main iron-tungsten mineralization representing prominent deposition of magnetite immediately followed by minor scheelite impregnation has taken place at the middle of early skarn stage, while complex polymetallic mineralization has proceeded during and after the late skarn stage. Various metals and semimetals of Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Pb and Bi have been in various states such as native metal, sulphides, arsenides, sulphosaits, sulpharsenides and tellurides.