Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Studies of the Hydrothermal Clay Deposits and Surrounded Rocks in the Haenam Area, Southwestern Part of the Korean Peninsula

한국 서남부, 해남지역의 열수 점토광상과 주변암에 대한 산소 및 수소동위원소 연구

  • Kim, In Joon (Institute of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo) ;
  • Kusakabe, Minoru (Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University)
  • Received : 1992.07.25
  • Published : 1993.02.28

Abstract

In the present study, three representative hydrothermal clay deposits, named the Seongsan, Ogmaesan and Haenam deposits, were selected for oxygen and hydrogen isotope studies. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of quartz, sericite, alunite and kaolin minerals from Seongsan, Ogmaesan, Haenam deposits and surrounded rocks of clay deposits have been measured. The ${\delta}^{18}O$ values of quartz, kaolin, sericite and alunite in the Seongsan mine are +8.4 to +11.1‰, +3.6 to 5.4‰, +4.8 to +5.8‰ and + 3.0 to +6.6‰, respectively. In the Ogmaesan mine, the ${\delta}^{18}O$ values of quartz, kaolin, sericite and alunite are +8.0 to +13.6‰, +2.8 to +6.7‰, +4.8 to +8.4‰ and +0.9 to +2.4‰, respectively. The ${\delta}^{18}O$ values of the Haenam mine range from +7.9 to +10.1‰ for quartz and from +4.5 to +6.5‰ for sericite. The ${\delta}^{18}O$ values of the whole-rocks range from + 3.0 to + 7.8‰ for the granitic rocks. The ${\delta}^{18}O$ values of the whole-rocks range from + 3.2 to + 10.7‰ for the volcanic rocks. The 8D values of kaolin, sericite and alunite in the Seongsan mine are -78 to -86‰, -71 to -90‰ and -43 to -77‰, respectively. In the Ogmaesan mine, the ${\delta}D$ values of kaolin, sericite and alunite are -73 to -80‰, -74 to -88‰ and -57 to -98‰, respectively. The ${\delta}D$ values of the Haenam mine range from -76 to -85‰ for sericite. The ${\delta}D$ values of the whole-rocks range from -77 to -105‰ for the granitic rocks. The ${\delta}D$ values of the wholerocks range from -76 to -100‰ for the volcanic rocks. The main result obtained oxygen and hydrogen isotope data can lead to the following interpretations on the origin of hydrothermal fluids in the clay deposits: Through the oxygen isotopic study, the formation temperature of the clay deposits was estimated from the coexisting minerals such as quartz-kaolin minerals and -sericite. Formation temperature of the acidic alteration zone is 165 to $280^{\circ}C$ in the Seongsan deposits, 175 to $250^{\circ}C$ in the Ogmaesan deposits and 250 to $350^{\circ}C$ in the Haenam deposits. Three clay deposits has been formed by magmatic water mixed with meteoric water. Furthermore, from this isotopic data, it is clarified that kaolin minerals and alunite are hypogene in origin, and has been formed by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the steam-heated environment, and that alunite has been produced in the spectacular solfataric alteration observed at the surface of some present-day hydrothermal systems. Oxidation of the $H_2S$ is thought to be generated when the vapor phase generated by boiling of the deep-seated water under the water table.

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