Influence of Soil Texture and Bulk Density on Root Growth Characteristics and Nutrient Influx Rate of Soybean Plant

토성(土性)과 용적밀도(容積密度)가 대두(大豆)의 뿌리 생장특성(生長特性)과 양분흡수기능(養分吸收機能)에 미치는 영향(影響)

  • Jung, Yeong-Sang (College of Agricultural Saences, Kangweon National University) ;
  • Lim, Hyung-Sik (College of Agricultural Saences, Kangweon National University)
  • Published : 1989.09.30


This study was conducted to understand the influence of soil compaction on root growth and nutrient uptake characteristics of the soybean roots grown in two soils with different texture. Tap root elongation was measured on young seedling grown in cores compacted to different bulk densities of 1.2, 1.4 and $1.6/cm^3$ with different soil water retention in laboratory. The soil used were Samgag sandy loam and Baegsan loam soils. The wet and dry weight, total length, average radius and total surface area of roots were measured on soybean plants grown in 1/5000 a Wagner pots compacted to different bulk density of 1.2 and $1.4g/cm^3$. The nutrient uptake of soybean shoot was measured and evaluated with the unit surface area of roots at the 7th, 17th and 27th days after germination. The results were as follows: 1. The tap root elongation rate was faster in the loam soil with low bulk density than in the sandy loam soil with high bulk density. The elongation rates were remarkedly decreased when soil water was lower than the retention of 4 bars in loam soil and that of 1 bars in sandy loam soil. 2. Tap root elongation rate sharply decreased as increased soil strength higher than $2kgf/cm^2$ measured by ELE penetrometer showing curvillinear regression. However, it was low regardless of soil strength when soil water retention was 10 bars in sandy loam soil. 3. From the pot experiment, the total length of roots were longer in loam soil than in sandy loam soil and was longer in the soils with lower bulk density. The average radius of fine roots grown in sandy loam soil was larger than that grown in loam soil. The total surface area of roots was greater in the loam soil with low bulk density than in the sandy loam soil with high bulk density as the total length of roots. 4. The amounts of nutrient uptake by soybean shoots were greater in loam soil primarily due to more production of dry matter than in sandy loam soil. The nitrogen influx rates through the unit surface area were 597 to $753nmoles/day-cm^2$ in loam soil and 222 to $365nmoles/day\;cm^2$ in sandy loam soilshowing higher value in higher bulk density. The potasium influx rates were 99 to $175nmoles/day-cm^2$, and those of phosphate were 26 to $46nmoles/day\;cm^2$. Those of Ca and Mg were 175 to 246 and 163 to $205nmoles/day\;cm^2$. The difference in nutrient influx rates between bulk densities of these elements were lower than that of nitrogen.



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