Histological and Biochemical Studies on the Rooting of Hard-wood Cuttings in Mulberry (Morus species)

뽕나무 古條揷木의 發根에 關한 組織 및 生化學的 硏究

  • Lim, Su-Ho (Sericultural Experiment Station, Office of Rural Development)
  • 임수호 (農村振興廳 蠶業試驗場)
  • Published : 1981.01.01

Abstract

Rootability of the hardwood cuttings of mulberry was related not only histological characteristics but dependent on biochemical properties. In this connection, the characteristics of the hardwood cuttings were histologically observed and the growth substances produced by the cuttings were also identified by means of mung bean bioassay. Amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid contents, and the C/N ratio were also analysed. The results are summarized as follows. 1. There were differences in rootability of cuttings between mulberry species and varieties Among the three mulberry species tested, Morus Lhou Koidz. showed the highest rootability while M. bombycis showed the lowest one. In varietal differences in rootability, it was shown that the varieties could be grouped according to rootability: high varieties(above 80%), medium(41~79%), and low(below 40%). The higher varieties were Kemmochi, Nakamaki, Kosen, and Wusuba roso. 2. The histological characteristic of the hardwood cuttings most closely related to rootability was cell layer arrangement in the sclerenchyma tissue. The lower rootability varieties developed two or three overlapping cell layers in the bark tissue and in the higher rootability varieties they were scattered over the primary cortex. 3. In the higher rootability varieties, there was a positive correlation between the development of root primodia and rootability of the hardwood cuttings. It was also shown that there was a close relationship between the size of primodia and the surface area of the lenticel with rootability of the cuttings. 4. Effect of growth substances extracted from the hardwood cuttings were determined by mung bean bioassay. The higher rootability varieties usually showed higher activities of the growth substances, in contrast the lower rootability varieties showed higher activities of the inhibitory substances. 5. It was evident that the substance separated by paper chromatography was identified as indole acetic acid with $R_f$ value ranging from 0.3 to 0.5. The other substances detected at a $R_f$ value ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 and origin to 0.1 were also responsible for rooting. 6. There exists a quantitatively different distribution of growth substances in a synergistic system in the tissues of cuttings, and the balance between growth and inhibitory substances gives rise to the development of rooting. Particularly, no descent of the substances from winter buds resulted in no rooting of cuttings but these substances were produced a week after planting in a warm environment. 7. It was shown that there were positive correlations between carbohydrate ($r=0.72^*$) and total sugar ($r=0.67^*$) and rootability, respectively, but there were negative correlations between reducing sugars ($r=-0.75^*$) and rootability. 8. High C/N ratio gave rise to high rootability($r=0.67^*$). The latter therefore depended on high amount of carbohydrate rather than nitrogen in the cuttings. 9. The content of RNA and DNA in the cuttings was not changed for upto two weeks after the cuttings were planted. Then an increase in RNA content took place in only the high rootability varieties. 10. There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the compositions of the amino acids between the high rootability varieties and the low rootability varieties. More aspartic acid and cystine were found in the higher rootability varieties than in the low rootability varieties.

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