A Study on the Genesis of Fluorite Deposits of South Korea

남한(南韓)의 형석광상(螢石鑛床)의 성인(成因)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

  • 지정만 (인하대학교 공과대학 자원공학과)
  • Published : 1975.03.31


Most fluorite deposits of South Korea are distributed in three metallogenic zones namly as: Hwacheon, Hwangangni and Geumsan metallogenic zones. Fluorite deposits of each zone show The characteristic features owing to the geological setting, the structural patterns and their forming processes. deposits of the Hwacheon metallogenic zone are wholly fissure filling hydrothermal veins emThe bedded in shear fractures of the granite gneiss or schists of Precambrian age or in the cooling fractures of the granite and acidic hypabyssal rocks which are assumed to be a differentiated sister rock of the granite. Localization of most fluorite veins of the region is structurally controlled by NW and EW fracture systems and genetically related to the granite intrusion which ascertained as motivating rock of the fluorite mineralization. Fluorites are in most cases accompanied by quartz, chalcedony mainly and rarely agate, calcite, barite and sulphide base metals in some localities. The deposits of the Hwangangni metallogenic zone were formed at the last stage of hydrothermal polymineralization of W, Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn. The majority of the fluorite ore bodies were originated from replacement in limestone beds of Great Limestone Series or in calcareous interbeds of metasediments, whereas some cavity-filling ore bodies were embedded in phyllites and schists of the Ockcheon system and along the fissures in the replaced beds which were originated by volume decrease. The localization of fluorite deposits in this region is genetically related to the Moongyong granite which has been dated as middle Cretaceous, and controlled structurally by the $N20^{\circ}{\sim}50^{\circ}W$ extension fracture system or axial planes of folds, and by faults of NE direction that acted as paths of ore solution. The deposits of the Geumsan metallogenic zone are seemed to be formed through the similar process as that of Hwangangni metallogenic zone, but characteristic distinctions are in that they are more prevailing fracture filling veins and large number of the deposits are localized in roof-pendants or xenolithes of limestone in granites and porphyries. Igneous rocks that presumably motivated the mineraltzation are middle Cretaceous Geumsan granite and porphyries. Metallogenic epoch of the fluorite mineralization of South Korea are puesumably limited in early-middle Cretaceous. Studies of the fluid inclusions in fluorites of the region reveal that the homogenization temperature of the fluorite deposits are as follows: Hwacheon metallogenic zone : $95^{\circ}C{\sim}165^{\circ}C$; Hwangangni metallogenic zone : $97^{\circ}C{\sim}235^{\circ}C$; Geumsan metallogenic zone : $93^{\circ}C{\sim}236^{\circ}C$. Judging from the above results, the deposits of the Hwancheon region were formed at the epithermal stage, and those in the Hwangangni and Geumsan regions, were deposited at epithermal stage preceded by mesothermal mineralization of small scale in which some sulphide minerals were deposited. The analytical data of minor elements in the fluorites reveal that ore solutions of Hwangangni metallogenic zone seemed to be emanated in more acidic stage of magma differentiation than Hwacheon metallogenic zone did.