Experimental Investigation of Stannite-Sphalerite System In Relation to Ores

황석석일섬아연석계(黃錫石一閃亞鉛石系)의 실험연구(實驗硏究)와 천연건물(天然鍵物)에의 활용(活用)

  • Lee, Jae Yeong (Department of Geology, Kyungpuk National University)
  • Published : 1975.03.31


The subject of this study deals with phase relations between stannite ($Cu_2FeSnS_4$) and sphalerite (${\beta}-ZnS$)/wurtzite (${\alpha}-ZnS$). The phase relations were systematically investigated from liquidus temperature to $400^{\circ}C$ under controlled conditions. ${\beta}-stannite$ (tetragonal) is stable up to $706{\pm}5^{\circ}C$, where it inverts to a high-temperature polymorph ${\alpha}-stannite$ (cubic) melting congruently at $867{\pm}5^{\circ}C$. Sphalerite (cubic, ${\beta}-ZnS$) inverts at $1013{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ to wurtzite, which is the hexagonal hightemperature polymorph of ZnS. Between ${\alpha}-stannite$ and sphalerite a complete solid solution series exists above approximately $870^{\circ}C$ up to solidus temperature. The melting temperature of ${\alpha}-stannite$ rises towards sphalerite and reaches a maximum at $1074{\pm}3^{\circ}C$, which is the peritectic with the composition of 91 wt. % sphalerite and 9 wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$. At this temperature, wurtzite takes only 5wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$ in solid solution which decreases with increasing temperature. The inverson temperature of ${\alpha}/{\beta}-stannite$ is lowered with increasing amounts of sphalerite in solid solution down to $614{\pm}7^{\circ}C$, which is the eutectoid with the composition of 13 wt. % sphalerite and 87 wt. % ${\alpha}-stannite$. Here, ${\beta}-stannite$ contains only 10wt. % sphalerite in solid solution. With decreasing temperature, the ranges of the solid solution on both sides of the system narrow. The phase relations in the above pure system changed due to the FeS impurities in the sphalerite solid solution. The eutectoid increased from $614{\pm}7^{\circ}C$ up to $695{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ (5 wt. % FeS) and $700{\pm}5^{\circ}C$ (10wt. % FeS), while the peritectic decreased from $1074{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ down to $1036{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ (wt. %FeS) and $987{\pm}3^{\circ}C$ (10wt. %FeS). A most notable change is the appearance of non-binary regions. An important feature is the combination of this study system with the experimental results reported by Sprinfer (1972). If a stannite-kesterite solid solution is used in the place of stannite as a bulk composition, the inversion temperature is lowered to less than $400^{\circ}C$ which belongs to temperatures of the hydrothermal region.