Studies on Garlic Mosaic Virus -lts isolation, symptom expression in test plants, physical properties, purification, serology and electron microscopy-

마늘 모자이크 바이러스에 관한 연구 -마늘 모자이크 바이러스의 분리, 검정식물상의 반응, 물리적성질, 순화, 혈청반응 및 전자현미경적관찰-

  • La Yong-Joon (College of Agriculture, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 1973.09.01


Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is an important vegetable crop for the Korean people and has long been cultivated extensively in Korea. More recently it has gained importance as a source of certain pharmaceuticals. This additional use has also contributed to the increasing demand for Korean garlic. Garlic has been propagated vegetatively for a long time without control measures against virus diseases. As a result it is presumed that most of the garlic varieties in Korea may have degenerated. The production of virus-free plants offers the most feasible way to control the virus diseases of garlic. However, little is known about garlic viruses both domestically and in foreign countries. More basic information regarding garlic viruses is needed before a sound approach to the control of these diseases can be developed. Currently garlic mosaic disease is most prevalent in plantings throughout Korea and is considered to be the most important disease of garlic in Korea. Because of this importance, studies were initiated to isolate and characterize the garlic mosaic virus. Symptom expression in test plants, physical properties, purification, serological reaction and morphological characteristics of the garlic mosaic virus were determined. Results of these studies are summarized as follows. 1. Surveys made throughout the important garlic growing areas in Korea during 1970-1972 revealed that most of the garlic plants were heavily infected with mosaic disease. 2. A strain of garlic mosaic virus was obtained from infected garlic leaves and transmitted mechanically to Chenopodium amaranticolor by single lesion isolation technique. 3. The symptom expression of this garlic mosaic virus isolate was examined on 26 species of test plants. Among these, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quince, C. album and C. koreanse expressed chlorotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 11-12 days after mechanical inoculation with infective sap. The remaining 22 species showed no symptoms and no virus was recovered from them whet back-inoculated to C. amaranticolor. 4. Among the four species of Chtnopodium mentioned above, C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa appear to be the most suitable local lesion test plants for garlic mosaic virus. 5. Cloves and top·sets originating from mosaic infected garlic plants were $100\%$ infected with the same virus. Consequently the garlic mosaic virus is successively transmitted through infected cloves and top-sets. 6. Garlic mosaic virus was mechanically transmitted to C, amaranticolor when inoculations were made with infective sap of cloves and top-sets. 7. Physical properties of the garlic mosaic virus as determined by inoculation onto C. amaranticolor were as follows. Thermal inactivation point: $65-70^{\circ}C$, Dilution end poiut: $10^-2-10^-3$, Aging in vitro: 2 days. 8. Electron microscopic examination of the garlic mosaic virus revealed long rod shaped particles measuring 1200-1250mu. 9. Garlic mosaic virus was purified from leaf materials of C. amaranticolor by using two cycles of differential centrifugation followed by Sephadex gel filtration. 10. Garlic mosaic virus was successfully detected from infected garlic cloves and top-sets by a serological microprecipitin test. 11 Serological tests of 150 garlic cloves and 30 top-sets collected randomly from seperated plants throughout five different garlic growing regions in Korea revealed $100\%$ infection with garlic mosaic virus. Accordingly it is concluded that most of the garlic cloves and top-sets now being used for propagation in Korea are carriers of the garlic mosaic virus. 12. Serological studies revealed that the garlic mosaic virus is not related with potato viruses X, Y, S and M. 13. Because of the difficulty in securing mosaic virus-free garlic plants, direct inoculation with isolated virus to the garlic plants was not accomplished. Results of the present study, however, indicate that the virus isolate used here is the causal virus of the garlic mosaic disease in Korea.