Cellulolytic Enzymes from Acrophialophora nainiana

  • Punnapayak, Hunsa (Plant Biomass Utilization Research Unit, Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University)
  • Published : 2005.06.30

Abstract

A cellulolytic fungus isolated from Agave plantation in northeastern Thailand was identified as Acrophialophora nainiana. The fungus was capable of growing at pH between 3 - 7 and 25 - 45 $^{\circ}C$, with the optimum conditions at pH 5.0 and 40 $^{\circ}C$. The wild isolate produced cellulases, comprising of exoglucanase (0.019 U/mg protein), endoglucanase (0.366 U/mg protein), and ${\beta}$-glucosidase (0.001 U/mg protein). Mutations with UV and NTG produced the UV 10-2 mutant with cellulases activities including exoglucanase (0.093 U/mg protein), endoglucanase (0.585 U/mg protein), and ${\beta}$-glucosidase (0.013 U/mg protein). Purification of the enzymes with ultrafiltration, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and ion-exchange chromatography yielded the maximal cellulase specific activities of 2.736 U/mg protein (exoglucanase), 0.235 U/mg protein (endoglucanase), and 0.008 U/mg protein (${\beta}$-glucosidase). The mutant's cellulases were the most active at pH 5.0 and 60 $^{\circ}C$. Ion-exchange chromatography revealed that A. nainiana UV 10-2 cellulases were comprised of two peaks with one peak showing the single endoglucanase activity while the other peak showed a mixture of the three enzyme activities. Production of A. nainiana UV 10-2 cellulases using banana leaf stalk as the sole carbon source gave comparable yields to that of the pure ${\alpha}$-cellulose. The enzymes were used in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of plant residue (Coix aquatica) along with Kluveromyces marxianus to produce ethanol. Moreover, when the enzymes were used in the bioscouring process of fabric, the desiravle traits of textile processing including immediate water absorbency, increased in whiteness and reduction of yellowness of the treated fabric were observed.

Keywords

cellulase;Acrophialophora nainiana