Examining the market orientation and learning orientaiton and these relationship with business performance has received considerable interest in the last decade. Despite these interest, our understanding of the structure of both market orientation and learning orientaion and the mechanism of those effect on business performance is apparently limited in figuring out the railroad industry in Korea. The purpose of this research was to conceptualize and measure the organizational culture dimension from the integrative framework of market orientation and learning orientation, and to analyze its relationship with business performance in the railroad industry. The findings from this research are such as follows; market orientation is a set of three interrelated components, i.e., customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination. This finding is similar to that of Narver and Slater(1990; 1994) who conceptualized market-oriented culture as a combined set of those 3 components. Learning-oriented culture also has a significant positive effect on business performance. The research findings suggest that both market orientation and learning orientation do exist as different organizational culture dimensions to acquire the sustainable competitive advantage in the railroad industry.